Thursday, April 30, 2009

Me busco y no me encuentro ...

Llevo tiempo que en la casa estoy buscando
el pedazo de alma que hace tiempo perdí
entre el te y los libros que mitigan mi dolor
es dificil de encontrar al que antes fui

Tengo ganas de decirte que te extraño,
que cuando te fuiste entonces entendí
que los grandes cambios no se llevan años,
que basto con un segundo junto a ti

Y volver a perdernos en la orilla de la cama de un hostal
o en el anonimato de las calles frías del escorial
y que me cuentes de lo que escribes y lo que quieres producir
y regalarte un beso en medio de tus sueños

Es dificil de explicarle al calendario
que el tiempo no pasa como dice allí,
que entre el lunes y el domingo hay tantos años
si no estás acurrucada junto a mí

Y si el tiempo decidiera o el destino
que al final no te quedaras tu conmigo
visitarte en Buenos Aires o en París,
Y recordar los buenos tiempos como ayer....

Te recuerdo asi ...

Te recuerdo asi...
Con un nudo en la garganta
y ganas de mentir
Y diciendome todo va estar bien cuando ya no estes aqui
No soy la primera ni eres el ultimo asi

Yo solo deseo quye venga de tu alma
un beso antes de que mi recuerdo se transforme en humo...

La inercia de los años.....

La inercia va arrastrandote muy rapido hasta el dia terminal
intentas sin lograr hacer mas corta la jornada en soledad
yo escribo y trato de ordenar mis sueños y mi vida desde aca
buscando la manera de juntarla con la tuya cada vez un poco mas
dificil es hacer mas de una cosa sin pensar

Pierde los temores y convierte en mariposas las serpientes de tus dudas
que despues de la tormenta calma habra no dude siempre
navegar contra corriente nos vuelve fuertes
si no perdemos de vista el faro que esta al final

A veces tiene que dolerte el alma para que te puedas por fin enterar
que hay vida en tus entrañas y no lo puedes negar

Mis hadas te provocan en la mente toda esta intranquilidad
para que no me saques de tu vida y no me logres evitar
tus angeles me cuidan todo el tiempo de cualquier intempestad
me limpian mi camino de las piedras que pudieran provocar mi tropezar
no es necesario recordarlo pues no lo puedo olvidar.....

nunca dejes cabos sin atar, nunca dejes guerras sin luchar

Estoy aqui ...!

El pertenece a ella, y ella pertenece al pasado,
y las risas los gritos y los reclamos,
esos no pertenecen a nadie, esos se los regalo

Iba cayendo la lluvia en el balcon
y tu fumando un cigarillo en el sillon
tu voz llamandome al balcon a ver llover
iban mis manos de las cuerdas al papel
tambien tus ojos de mi cara a la pared
sin fe, sabiendo que ha acabado de llover

Estoy aqui sin ti, hundido en el silencio
estoy sin ti aqui, deseando que regreses junto a mi
vayamos al balcon a ver llover

El la ve con ojos llorosos, ella ya no lo mira pero se acuerda
de el por unas fotos, unas fotos viejas que se han ido desgastando
igual que las promesas de amor eterno que se perdieron con los años
ella esta cansada y aburrida el esta mirandola y casi no ve nada
de que se abra enamorado por que ella se ve como el humo,
por que el se pasa la vida intentando

Siempre juraste que un dia no ibas a volver
por que ya juntos no habia nada mas que hacer
despues jalabas con el auto hasta las seis
sigue cayendo la lluvia en el balcon
y tu no estas con tu cigarro en el sillon
y yo tratando de escribirte esta cancion

Estoy aqui sin ti hundido en el silencio
estoy sin ti aqui, deseando que regreses junto a mi
vayamos al balcon a ver llover

Estoy aqui sin ti hundido en el silencio
estoy sin ti aqui, deseando que regreses junto a mi
vayamos al balcon a ver llover

Wednesday, April 29, 2009

No hay buena fe en America!

Simon Bolivar :

".....No hay buena fe en America
Ni entre los hombres ni entre las naciones
Los tratados son papeles
Las constituciones Libros
Las elecciones combates
La libertad amargura
Y la vida un tormento...."

Monday, April 27, 2009

An animal I have become!!!

I can't escape this hell
So many times I've tried
But I'm still caged inside
Somebody get me through this nightmare
I can't control myself

So what if you can see the darkest side of me
No one will ever change this animal I have become

I can't escape myself
So many times I've lied
But there's still rage inside
Somebody get me through this nightmare
I can't control myself

Help me believe it's not the real me
Somebody help me tame this animal

Somebody wake me from this nightmare
I can't escape this hell

This animal...

Help me believe it's not the real me
Somebody help me tame this animal!
This animal I have become

Han pasado cinco lunas

Han pasado cinco lunas
y en esta espera
el corazon se me ha hecho viejo.

Te llevaste mi fe
mi penultimo te amo
mutilaste mi alma
mi autoestima esta en el suelo.

Y me voy a beber
cada gota de tus
Gritos, tus rabias, tus desprecios.

En el jardin de mi alma
hoy se han secado mis anhelos.

Te voy arrancar de este corazon
Y con el filo de mis labios tu recuerdo devorare

Sunday, April 26, 2009

Ni tu ni yo !!!!

Autores Ricardo Arjona y Paquita "La del Barrio"


"Ni tu ni yo ..."


Lo nuestro pa empezar no es de novela
ni de Romeos muriendo por Julietas
ni haremos de Love Story la secuela
ni somos de este circo marionetas

lo nuestro tiene un poco de desquite
y no comparte fines de semana
lo nuestro se cocina en escondite
y se sirve de a dos sobre la cama

Por hoy déjame ser tu hombre perfecto
mientras que te aparece el indicado
para casarte busca un arquitecto
para hacer el amor un desalmado

lo nuestro no pregunta por futuros
jamás llegue o me fui con equipaje
lo nuestro se sustenta en lo inseguro
y no se ampara en celos ni chantajes

Ni tu ni yo, ni yo ni tu
queremos que se contamine
este amor que sin permiso
durara hasta que termine
ni tu ni yo
estamos pa' los modales
que requiere el protocolo
de las páginas sociales
ni tu ni yo, ni yo ni tu

(¿Me esta oyendo inútil?
este amor durara hasta que tu quieras)

lo nuestro es por salvaje verdadero
y no se ampara en códigos morales
lo nuestro es clandestino y tan sincero
que no precisa abrir mas sucursales

jamas te amenacé ojo por ojo
ni hago chantajes con lo que dijiste
reinventas Kamasutras a tu antojo
y nunca pregunté donde aprendiste

Ni tu ni yo, ni yo ni tu
queremos que se contamine
este amor que sin permiso
durara hasta que termine
ni tu ni yo
estamos pa' los modales
que requiere el protocolo
de las páginas sociales
ni tu ni yo, ni yo ni tu

Ni tu estas pa' jardín con sube y baja
ni yo pa' barbecues ni domingadas
aquí cada quien va para su casa
y no se anda con tanta tarugada.

Tocando Fondo!

Autor Ricardo Arjona:

"Tocando fondo .."


Pegue tu foto en el ropero, para sentir que estas aqui, yo me instale en el mes de enero afuera creo, que es abril.

Me importa un bledo el noticiero, total jamas hablan de mi, hice un pais de este agujero, desde que tu, no estas aqui.

Este es el himno nacional y por bandera tengo tu tanga cafe, confieso que la paso mal y no se como puedo mantenerme en pie.

Y sigo aqui tocando fondo descubriendo todo lo que nos falto, echandome la culpa en todo derritiendo el poco aire que me quedo. Y sigo aqui tocando fondodesde mi pais que es este quinto piso, desde tu exilio voluntario la nostalgia sigue de primer ministro.

Todo esta intacto en mi pais, tal cual como lo abandonaste, las flores del papel tapiz la copia del Dali que olvidaste.

Demas esta decir te extraño, y el resto de cursilerias, no insistas en lo que hace daño, es otra frase, de tu autoria.

Y aunque he pagado los impuestos, de esta bancarrota que es vivir sin ti, ya no me queda presupuesto para otro invierno si que estes aqui.

Y sigo aqui tocando fondo descubriendo todo lo que nos falto, echandome la culpa en todo derritiendo el poco aire que me quedo. Y sigo aqui tocando fondo desde mi pais que este quinto piso, desde tu exilio voluntario la nostalgia sigue de primer ministro.

Y sigo aqui tocando fondo descubriendo todo lo que nos falto, echandome la culpa en todo derriteindo el poco aire que me quedo. Y sigo aqui tocando fondo desde mi pais que es este quinto piso, desde tu exilio voluntario la nostalgia sigue de primer ministro.

El demonio en casa !

Autor Ricardo Arjona:


"El Demonio En Casa"


No se que historia te invente
para que te quedaras a dormir aquí
lo sierto que eso fué hace meses
y no te dió ganas de querer salir
poco a poco minaste el terreno
olvidando cosas como el secador
hasta que te dueñaste de todo
incluso del control de mi televisor
hoy mi libertad bosteza
pues la generala me prohibio salir
es viernes y me quedo en casa
por que su mamá hoy viene a cocinar
y desfila con su look de tubos
al mas puro estilo de la vencidad
fue tan difícil que entrara y se ve imposible hacerla salir

El demonio en casa empezó de oveja
hoy pido permiso mientra limpia el piso para invitar un amigo
el demonio en casa maquina del sexo
dice cuando se hace dicta como se hace
y a la hora que le convenga
el demonio en casa...no quiere salir.

Desde que empezaste con las dieta
no se encuentra nada en el congelador
tu llevas 3 kilos de mas y yo le abierto 3 huecos al cinturon
ya cambiaste el número de casa
para que esas golfas nunca llamen mas
y me pusiste un celular y tu guardas la clave para mi buzon
el demonio se mudo a mi casa
y no hay exorcismo que la haga salir
ya coloco una foto de ella junto a su mamá
en el recibidor
y del closet ni entrar en detalles
que es campo minado a lo afganistan
entre blusas y bisuteria
ya no tengo espacio ni para un calcetín

El demonio en casa empezó de oveja
hoy pido permiso mientra limpia el piso para invitar un amigo
el demonio en casa maquina del sexo
dice cuando se hace dicta como se hace
y a la hora que le convenga
el demonio en casa...no quiere salir.
Entre la limpieza y la cocina
la pedicurisat y su peinador
trabajan mas de 6 en casa
y estoy sospechando de su entrenador.

No me sirve de nada !!!

Autor Ricardo Arjona:


"No me sirve de nada .."


Conozco el atajo que llega al secreto que nunca dirás,
Se de aquel sendero que llega a tus labios por cualquier lugar,
Descubrir las salsa que orquestan tus pasos en el adoquín,
Y el llanto que escondes tras esa sonrisa de casting barato.

Y de que me sirve,
No sirve de nada.

Conozco el aroma que dejan tus sueños si es que puede haber,
Se que piensas mucho, hablas demasiado y resuelves poco,
Se cuando estas fría y aparentas fuegos por condescender,
Se que a veces mientes, y yo hago maromas por no descubrirte.

Y de que me sirve,
No sirve de nada.

Si tus celos piensan que no hay aventura que se me resista,
Que hasta a veces quisiera parecerme al tipo que tu crees que soy,
Para tener motivos, para vivir la vida,
Para arrancarle un tajo de locura a esta miseria,
De quererte tanto,
Y no sirva de nada.

No sirve de nada este delirio
De aferrarnos a una historia que murió sin darnos cuenta,
No sirve de nada este castigo,
De buscar en lo imposible algún borrón y cuenta nueva,
No sirve de nada,
No sirve de nada,
No sirve de nada.

Conozco las dudas que te llevan siempre al mismo lugar,
Se que estoy pagando facturas pendientes de algo que paso,
Se que te desgastas buscándole absurdos a la realidad,
Se que a veces dices, cuando tienes ganas de no decir nada.

Y de que te sirve,
No sirve de nada.

Hacen falta dos para hallar una ecuación de encontrar un culpable,
Hace falta tiempo para tener ganas de desperdiciarlo,
Hacen falta sueños para aferrarse a la realidad,
Hace falta todo, y al final resulta que siempre es lo mismo.

Y de que nos sirve,
No sirve de nada.

No sirve de nada este delirio
De aferrarnos a una historia que murió sin darnos cuenta,
No sirve de nada este castigo,
De buscar en lo imposible algún borrón y cuenta nueva,
No sirve de nada,
No sirve de nada,
No sirve de nada.


No sirve de nada este delirio
De aferrarnos a una historia que murió sin darnos cuenta,
No sirve de nada este castigo,
De buscar en lo imposible algún borrón y cuenta nueva,
No sirve de nada,
No sirve de nada,
No sirve de nada.

Vivir sin ti es posible!!

Autor Ricardo Arjona:

"Vivir sin ti es posible"


Vivir sin ti es posible, sin mayor dificultad
Vivo porque me despierto como salgo y duermo porque juego al dominó
Porque ha dicho mi doctor
Después de tomarme el pulso que mis signos vitales
Anuncian que estoy vivo
Vivo porque aun respiro y porque salgo a caminar
Vivo porque así es la vida aunque hay que mencionar
Que vivir no es estar vivo vivir pa' mi eres tú

Vivir sin ti es posible, sin mayor dificultad
Vivo porque tengo un nombre, un número de cuenta y mi carnet de electoral
Vivo porque así le llaman a ese combustible absurdo de moverse por ahí
Vivo como lo hacen todos
Vivo porque algunos creen que es abrir los ojos
Vivo aunque me muero a diaro porque tu ya no estas y vivir no es estar vivo
Vivir pa' mi eres tú

*coro:
Vivo, sin ningún problema aunque cada instante mueres sin valer la pena
Vivo porque sobrevivo, porque aunque no quiera, tengo que cargar conmigo
Vivo aunque le tengo miedo a vivir muriendo o a morir en vida

Vivir sin ti es posible, sin mayor dificultad
Vivo porque se hace fácil respirar el aire y devolver las sobras
Vivo porque no hay manera de negar que existo por ponerle un nombre
Vivo por inercia absurda
Vivo aunque no tengo ganas de añadirme a todos
Vivo aunque me muero a diaro porque tu ya no estas
Y vivir no es estar vivo
Vivir pa' mi eres tú

Vivo, sin ningún problema aunque cada instante mueres sin valer la pena
Vivo porque sobrevivo, porque aunque no quiera, tengo que cargar conmigo
Vivo, sin ningún problema aunque cada instante mueres sin valer la pena
Vivo porque sobrevivo, porque aunque no quiera, tengo que cargar conmigo
Vivo aunque le tengo miedo a vivir muriendo o a morir en vida

Se nos muere el amor ....

Autor Ricardo Arjona:

" Se nos muere el amor ....."


Se nos muere el amor, tiene fiebre de frio.
Se nos cayó de la cama
cuando lo empujó el hastio
y esta enfermo de muerte
el mismo que era tan fuerte
tiene anemia de besos, tiene cancer de olvido
y por si fuera poco, tiene ganas de morir.

Se nos muere el amor
se nos mueren las ganas, las vemos agonizar
convulsionando entre las sábanas
y no existe un vino tinto
que nos reviva el instinto
se nos muere la magia, la pasión, la locura
ay amor traicionero
viniste pa´ jorobarnos.
Yo sobrevivia sin ella
y ella era feliz sin mi.

Ay amor con el tiempo te nos has oxidado
ay amor susceptible, ay amor delicado.
Ay amor no te mueras,
o muerete de un trancazo
que no hay peor agonia
que la que es de paso en paso

Se nos muere el amor, se acabo la ternura
y a la libertad, la convertimos en dictadura
se contagio de costumbre
le falto fuego a la lumbre
se nos mueren los sueños, los versos, los besos
ay amor implacable yo ya no se que prefiero
que me odie de corazon
o que me ame sin amor

Ay amor con el tiempo te nos has oxidado
ay amor susceptible, ay amor delicado.
Ay amor no te mueras,
o muerete de un trancazo
que no hay peor agonia
que la que es de paso en paso

Si todo era tan bello
dime amor que nos pasa
hoy ya no somos ni amigos
no cabemos en casa
ay amor tan ingrato
quitame solo una duda
si eres tu el que te mueres
o soy yo el que te mato

Y ella lo sabe!!

De Edgar Ocerosky el poema : " Y ella lo sabe"


Fiel a mi costumbre intento pasarte de largo,
Por temor a que mi piel recuerde,
Que murió en tus brazos.


La fe se me escapó contigo,
Perdieron rumbo mis zapatos,
Y a la deriva a veces lloro
Imaginando, todo lo que no pasamos.


Y ella lo sabe,
Y no dice nada,
Ella lo sabe,
Que tras de tu recuerdo un día,
Se me fugó el alma.


Ella no hiere como tú,
No exige tiempo como tú,
Llegó una noche y se quedó a esperar, el alba.


Ella no actúa como tú,
No finge amor tal como tú,
Me mira y sabe que tal vez,
No habrá mañana,
No habrá mañana.


Traté con más pena que gloria de olvidar tu espalda,
Pero mi cuerpo en otros brazos
Terminaba, por trazar tu mapa.


Tu nombre me quebró el silencio,
Se me escapó de madrugada,
No he dormido y por error
Le supliqué a la noche que te regresará.


Y ella lo sabe,
Y no dice nada,
Ella lo sabe,
Que tras de tu recuerdo un día,
Se me fugo el alma.


Ella no hiere como tú,
No exige tiempo como tú,
Llegó una noche y se quedó a esperar, el alba.


Ella no actúa como tú,
No finge amor tal como tú,
Me mira y sabe que tal vez,
No habrá mañana.


Ella es tan diferente,
Tan distante, tan callada,
Ella no hiere como tú,
No exige tiempo como tú,
Llegó una noche y se quedó a esperar, el alba.


Ella no actúa como tú,
No finge amor tal como tú,
Me mira y sabe que tal vez,
No habrá mañana,
No habrá mañana.


Llueve en el silencio ausente,
De mis desengaños,
Porque el olvido no me deja rescribir,
La historia fuera de tus brazos.


Y ella lo sabe,
Y no dice nada,
Ella lo sabe,
Que tras de tu recuerdo un día,
Se me fugó, el alma.

Te llegara mi olvido !!!

Como un homenaje a el gran Maestro Juan Gabriel !

TE llegara mi olvido:

Cuantas cosas han pasado corazon
desde que tu te fuiste
sabra dios cuantas cosas
desde que me dejaste completamente trizte.

y no volvi a saber de ti jamas
desde que tu te fuiste
y yo segui esperandote mi amor
y sin saber porque tu no volviste.

de mi ya ni te acuerdas
se te olvido que existo
pero hasta haya donde tu te encuentres
te ha de llegar mi olvido.

cuando sientas las ansias de verme
y te arrepientas de haberme dejado
ese dia sin poder hacer nada
notaras que mi olvido a llegado.

cuando sientas las ansias de verme
y te arrepientas de haberme dejado
ese dia sin poder hacer nada
notaras que mi olvido a llegado.

Tuesday, April 21, 2009

Moises Maimonides!

Maimonides's full Hebrew name was Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: משה בן מימון‎) and his Arabic name was Abu Imran Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Qurtubi al-Israili (أبو عمران موسى بن ميمون بن عبد الله القرطبي الإسرائيلي). However, he is most commonly known by his Greek name, Moses Maimonides (Μωυσής Μαϊμονίδης). All of these names literally mean "Moses, son of Maimon." Several Jewish works call him Maimoni (מימוני). However, most Jewish works refer to him by the Hebrew acronym of his title and name — רבי משה בן מימון (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon‎) — thus, among Jews he is known as רמב"ם (the Rambam)

Maimonides was born in 1135 in Córdoba, Spain. His year of birth is disputed, with Shlomo Pines suggesting that he was born in 1138. He was born during what some scholars consider to be the end of the golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, after the first centuries of the Moorish rule. At an early age, he developed an interest in the exact sciences and philosophy. In addition to reading the works of Muslim scholars, he also read those of the Greek philosophers made accessible through Arabic translations. Maimonides was not known as a supporter of mysticism.

He voiced opposition to poetry, the best of which he declared as false, since it was founded on pure invention - and this too in a land which had produced such noble expressions of the Hebrew and Arabic muse. This Sage, who was revered for his saintly personality as well as for his writings, led an unquiet life, and penned his classic works with the staff of the wanderer in his hand. Maimonides studied Torah under his father Maimon, who had in turn studied under Rabbi Joseph ibn Migash.

The Almohades from Africa conquered Córdoba in 1148, and threatened the Jewish community with the choice of conversion to Islam, death, or exile.Maimonides's family, along with most other Jews, chose exile. For the next ten years they moved about in southern Spain, avoiding the conquering Almohades, but eventually settled in Fez in Morocco, where Maimonides acquired most of his secular knowledge, studying at the University of Al Karaouine. During this time, he composed his acclaimed commentary on the Mishnah in the years 1166-1168.

Following this sojourn in Morocco, he lived briefly in the Holy Land, before settling in Fostat, Egypt, where he was physician of the Grand Vizier Alfadhil and Sultan Saladin of Egypt, and also treated Richard the Lionheart while on the Crusades. He was considered to be the greatest physician of his time, being influenced by renowned Islamic thinkers such as Ibn Rushd and Al-Ghazali. He composed most of his œuvre in this last locale, including the Mishneh Torah. He died in Fostat, and was buried in Tiberias (today in Israel). His son Avraham, recognized as a great scholar, succeeded Maimonides as Nagid (head of the Egyptian Jewish community); he also took up his father's role as court physician, at the age of eighteen. He greatly honored the memory of his father, and throughout his career defended his father's writings against all critics. The office of Nagid was held by the Maimonides family for four successive generations until the end of the 14th century.

Maimonides was a devoted physician. In a famous letter, he describes his daily routine: After visiting the Sultan’s palace, he would arrive home exhausted and hungry, where "I would find the antechambers filled with gentiles and Jews ... I would go to heal them, and write prescriptions for their illnesses ... until the evening ... and I would be extremely weak."

He is widely respected in Spain and a statue of him was erected in Córdoba by the only synagogue in that city which escaped destruction, and which is no longer functioning as a Jewish house of worship but is open to the public.
Further information: History of the Jews in Egypt#Arab Rule (641 - 1250)

Maimonides was one of the most influential figures in medieval Jewish philosophy. A popular medieval saying that also served as his epitaph states, From Moshe (of the Torah) to Moshe (Maimonides) there was none like Moshe.

Radical Jewish scholars in the centuries that followed can be characterised as "Maimonideans" or "anti-Maimonideans." Moderate scholars were eclectics who largely accepted Maimonides's Aristotelian world-view, but rejected those elements of it which they considered to contradict the religious tradition. Such eclecticism reached its height in the 14th-15th centuries.

The most rigorous medieval critique of Maimonides is Hasdai Crescas' Or Hashem. Crescas bucked the eclectic trend, by demolishing the certainty of the Aristotelian world-view, not only in religious matters, but even in the most basic areas of medieval science (such as physics and geometry). Crescas's critique provoked a number of 15th century scholars to write defenses of Maimonides. A translation of Crescas was produced by Harry Austryn Wolfson of Harvard University, in 1929.

The 13 principles of faith
Main article: Jewish principles of faith

In his commentary on the Mishna (tractate Sanhedrin, chapter 10), Maimonides formulates his 13 principles of faith. They summarized what he viewed as the required beliefs of Judaism with regards to:

1. The existence of God
2. God's unity
3. God's spirituality and incorporeality
4. God's eternity
5. God alone should be the object of worship
6. Revelation through God's prophets
7. The preeminence of Moses among the prophets
8. God's law given on Mount Sinai
9. The immutability of the Torah as God's Law
10. God's foreknowledge of human actions
11. Reward of good and retribution of evil
12. The coming of the Jewish Messiah
13. The resurrection of the dead

These principles were controversial when first proposed, evoking criticism by Rabbi Hasdai Crescas and Rabbi Joseph Albo, and were effectively ignored by much of the Jewish community for the next few centuries. ("Dogma in Medieval Jewish Thought," Menachem Kellner). However, these principles became widely held; today, Orthodox Judaism holds these beliefs to be obligatory. Two poetic restatements of these principles (Ani Ma'amin and Yigdal) eventually became canonized in the "siddur" (Jewish prayer book).

Legal works
A recent newly corrected version of Mishneh Torah, Maimonides's main work of Halakha
Main article: Mishneh Torah

With Mishneh Torah, Maimonides composed a code of Jewish law with the widest-possible scope and depth. The work gathers all the binding laws from the Talmud, and incorporates the positions of the Geonim (post-Talmudic early Medieval scholars, mainly from Mesopotamia).

While Mishneh Torah is now considered the fore-runner of the Arbaah Turim and the Shulchan Aruch[citation needed] (two later codes), it met initially with much opposition[citation needed]. There were two main reasons for this opposition. Firstly, Maimonides had refrained from adding references to his work for the sake of brevity; secondly, in the introduction, he gave the impression of wanting to "cut out" study of the Talmud[12], to arrive at a conclusion in Jewish law. His most forceful opponents were the rabbis of Provence (Southern France), and a running critique by Rabbi Abraham ben David (Raavad III) is printed in virtually all editions of Mishneh Torah. However, it was recognized as a monumental contribution to the systemized writing of Halakha. Throughout the centuries, it has been widely studied and its halakhic decisions have weighed heavily in later rulings.

An oft-cited legal maxim from his pen is: "It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent one to death." Maimonides argued that executing a defendant on anything less than absolute certainty would lead to a slippery slope of decreasing burdens of proof, until we would be convicting merely "according to the judge's caprice." His concern was maintaining popular respect for law, and he saw errors of commission as much more threatening than errors of omission.

Through the Guide for the Perplexed and the philosophical introductions to sections of his commentaries on the Mishna, Maimonides exerted an important influence on the Scholastic philosophers, especially on Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas, and Duns Scotus. He was himself a Jewish Scholastic. Educated more by reading the works of Arab Muslim philosophers than by personal contact with Arabian teachers, he acquired an intimate acquaintance not only with Arab Muslim philosophy, but with the doctrines of Aristotle. Maimonides strove to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and science with the teachings of the Torah.

The principle which inspired his philosophical activity was identical with the fundamental tenet of Scholasticism: there can be no contradiction between the truths which God has revealed, and the findings of the human mind in science and philosophy. Maimonides primarily relied upon the science of Aristotle and the teachings of the Talmud, commonly finding basis in the former for the latter. In some important points, however, he departed from the teaching of Aristotle; for instance, he rejected the Aristotelian doctrine that God's provident care extends only to humanity, and not to the individual.

Maimonides was led by his admiration for the neo-Platonic commentators to maintain many doctrines which the Scholastics could not accept. For instance, Maimonides was an adherent of "negative theology" (also known as "Apophatic theology".) In this theology, one attempts to describe God through negative attributes. For instance, one should not say that God exists in the usual sense of the term; all we can safely say is that God is not non-existent. We should not say that "God is wise"; but we can say that "God is not ignorant," i.e. in some way, God has some properties of knowledge. We should not say that "God is One," but we can state that "there is no multiplicity in God's being." In brief, the attempt is to gain and express knowledge of God by describing what God is not; rather than by describing what God "is."

The Scholastics agreed with him that no predicate is adequate to express the nature of God; but they did not go so far as to say that no term can be applied to God in the affirmative sense. They admitted that while "eternal," "omnipotent," etc., as we apply them to God, are inadequate, at the same time we may say "God is eternal" etc., and need not stop, as Moses did, with the negative "God is not not-eternal," etc. In essence what Maimonides wanted to express is that when people give God anthropomorphic qualities they do not explain anything more of what God is, because we cannot know anything of the essence of God.

Maimonides' use of apophatic theology is not unique to this time period or to Judaism. For example, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite and Maximus the Confessor, Eastern Christian theologians, developed apophatic theology for Christianity nearly 900 years earlier. See Negative theology for uses in other religions.

He agrees with "the philosophers" in teaching that, man's intelligence being one in the series of intelligences emanating from God, the prophet must, by study and meditation, lift himself up to the degree of perfection required in the prophetic state. But here, he invokes the authority of "the Law," which teaches that, after that perfection is reached, there is required the "free acts of God," before the man actually becomes a prophet.

Maimonides wrote on theodicy (the philosophical attempt to reconcile the existence of a God with the existence of evil in the world). He took the premise that an omnipotent and good God exists. He adopts the Aristotelian view that defines evil as the lack of, or the reduced presence of a God, as exhibited by those who exercise the free choice of rejecting belief.

Maimonides answered an inquiry concerning astrology, addressed to him from Marseille. He responded that man should believe only what can be supported either by rational proof, by the evidence of the senses, or by trustworthy authority. He affirms that he had studied astrology, and that it does not deserve to be described as a science. The supposition that the fate of a man could be dependent upon the constellations is ridiculed by him; he argues that such a theory would rob life of purpose, and would make man a slave of destiny. (See also fatalism, predestination.)

In "Guide for the Perplexed" Book III, Chapter 28[15], Maimonides explicitly draws a distinction between "true beliefs," which were beliefs about God which produced intellectual perfection, and "necessary beliefs," which were conducive to improving social order. Maimonides places anthropomorphic personification statements about God in the latter class. He uses as an example the notion that God becomes "angry" with people who do wrong. In the view of Maimonides (taken from Avicenna) God does not actually become angry with people, as God has no human passions; but it is important for them to believe God does, so that they desist from sinning.

Maimonides distinguishes two kinds of intelligence in man, the one material in the sense of being dependent on, and influenced by, the body, and the other immaterial, that is, independent of the bodily organism. The latter is a direct emanation from the universal active intellect; this is his interpretation of the noûs poietikós of Aristotelian philosophy. It is acquired as the result of the efforts of the soul to attain a correct knowledge of the absolute, pure intelligence of God.

The knowledge of God is a form of knowledge which develops in us the immaterial intelligence, and thus confers on man an immaterial, spiritual nature. This confers on the soul that perfection in which human happiness consists, and endows the soul with immortality. One who has attained a correct knowledge of God has reached a condition of existence which renders him immune from all the accidents of fortune, from all the allurements of sin, and even from death itself. Man, therefore is in a position not only to work out his own salvation and immortality.

The resemblance between this doctrine and Spinoza's doctrine of immortality is so striking as to warrant the hypothesis that there is a causal dependence of the latter on the earlier doctrine. The differences between the two Jewish thinkers are, however, as remarkable as the resemblance. While Spinoza teaches that the way to attain the knowledge which confers immortality is the progress from sense-knowledge through scientific knowledge to philosophical intuition of all things sub specie æternitatis, Maimonides holds that the road to perfection and immortality is the path of duty as described in the Torah and the rabbinic understanding of the oral law.

Religious Jews not only believed in immortality in some spiritual sense, but most believed that there would at some point in the future be a messianic era, and a resurrection of the dead. This is the subject of Jewish eschatology. Maimonides wrote much on this topic, but in most cases he wrote about the immortality of the soul for people of perfected intellect; his writings were usually not about the resurrection of dead bodies. This prompted hostile criticism from the rabbis of his day, and sparked a controversy over his true views.

Rabbinic works usually refer to this afterlife as "Olam Haba" (the World to Come). Some rabbinic works use this phrase to refer to a messianic era, an era of history right here on Earth; in other rabbinic works this phrase refers to a purely spiritual realm. It was during Maimonides's lifetime that this lack of agreement flared into a full blown controversy, with Maimonides charged as a heretic by some Jewish leaders.

Some Jews at this time taught that Judaism did not require a belief in the physical resurrection of the dead, as the afterlife would be a purely spiritual realm. They used Maimonides's works on this subject to back up their position. In return, their opponents claimed that this was outright heresy; for them the afterlife was right here on Earth, where God would raise dead bodies from the grave so that the resurrected could live eternally. Maimonides was brought into this dispute by both sides, as the first group stated that his writings agreed with them, and the second group portrayed him as a heretic for writing that the afterlife is for the immaterial spirit alone. Eventually, Maimonides felt pressured to write a treatise on the subject, the "Ma'amar Tehiyyat Hametim" "The Treatise on Resurrection."

Chapter two of the treatise on resurrection refers to those who believe that the world to come involves physically resurrected bodies. Maimonides refers to one with such beliefs as being an "utter fool" whose belief is "folly".

If one of the multitude refuses to believe [that angels are incorporeal] and prefers to believe that angels have bodies and even that they eat, since it is written (Genesis 18:8) 'they ate', or that those who exist in the World to Come will also have bodies—we won't hold it against him or consider him a heretic, and we will not distance ourselves from him. May there not be many who profess this folly, and let us hope that he will go no farther than this in his folly and believe that the Creator is corporeal.

However, Maimonides also writes that those who claimed that he altogether believed the verses of the Hebrew Bible referring to the resurrection were only allegorical were spreading falsehoods and "revolting" statements. Maimonides asserts that belief in resurrection is a fundamental truth of Judaism about which there is no disagreement, and that it is not permissible for a Jew to support anyone who believes differently. He cites Daniel 12:2 and 12:13 as definitive proofs of physical resurrection of the dead when they state "many of them that sleep in the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence" and "But you, go your way till the end; for you shall rest, and will arise to your inheritance at the end of the days."

While these two positions may be seen as in contradiction (non-corporeal eternal life, versus a bodily resurrection), Maimonides resolves them with a then unique solution: Maimonides believed that the resurrection was not permanent or general. In his view, God never violates the laws of nature. Rather, divine interaction is by way of angels, which Maimonides often regards to be metaphors for the laws of nature, the principles by which the physical universe operates, or Platonic eternal forms. [This is not always the case. In Hilchot Yesodei HaTorah Chaps. 2-4, Maimonides describes angels that are actually created beings.] Thus, if a unique event actually occurs, even if it is perceived as a miracle, it is not a violation of the world's order.

In this view, any dead who are resurrected must eventually die again. In his discussion of the 13 principles of faith, the first five deal with knowledge of God, the next four deal with prophecy and the Torah, while the last four deal with reward, punishment and the ultimate redemption. In this discussion Maimonides says nothing of a universal resurrection. All he says it is that whatever resurrection does take place, it will occur at an indeterminate time before the world to come, which he repeatedly states will be purely spiritual.

He writes "It appears to us on the basis of these verses (Daniel 12:2,13) that those people who will return to those bodies will eat, drink, copulate, beget, and die after a very long life, like the lives of those who will live in the Days of the Messiah." Maimonides thus disassociated the resurrection of the dead from both the World to Come and the Messianic era.

In his time, many Jews believed that the physical resurrection was identical to the world to come; thus denial of a permanent and universal resurrection was considered tantamount to denying the words of the Talmudic sages. However, instead of denying the resurrection, or maintaining the current dogma, Maimonides posited a third way: That resurrection had nothing to do with the messianic era (here in this world) nor to do with Olam Haba (עולם הבא) (the purely spiritual afterlife). Rather, he considered resurrection to be a miracle that the book of Daniel predicted; thus at some point in time we could expect some instances of resurrection to occur temporarily, which would have no place in the final eternal life of the righteous.

Maimonides was trained as a physician in Cordoba and in Fez. He later practiced his profession in Egypt, probably in 1166 or 1167, after the death of his brother who had supported him, and did so for the remainder of his life. He gained widespread recognition and became a court physician to the Grand Vezier Alfadil, then to Sultan Saladin, after whose death he remained a physician to the royal family. In his writings he described many conditions including asthma, diabetes, hepatitis, and pneumonia, and emphasized moderation and a healthy life style. His treatises became influential for generations of physicians. He was knowledgeable about Greek and Persian medicine, and followed the principles of humorism in the tradition of Galen, however, did not blindly accept authority but used his own observation and experience. Frank, however, indicates that in his medical writings he sought not to explore new ideas but to interpret works of authorities so that they could become acceptable. Maimonides displays in his interactions with patients attributes that today would be called intercultural awareness and respect for the patient's autonomy.

The Oath of Maimonides is a document about the medical calling and recited as a substitute for the Oath of Hippocrates. The Oath is not to be confused with a more lengthy Prayer of Maimonides. These documents may not have been written by Maimonides, but later. The Prayer appeared first in print in 1793 and has been attributed to Marcus Herz, a German physician, pupil of Immanual Kant.

Maimonides remains the most widely debated Jewish thinker among modern scholars. He has been adopted as a symbol and an intellectual hero by almost all major movements in modern Judaism, and has proven immensely important to philosophers such as Leo Strauss; and his views on the importance of humility have been taken up by modern humanist philosophers, like Peter Singer and Iain King. In academia, particularly within the area of Jewish Studies, the teaching of Maimonides has been dominated by traditional, generally Orthodox scholars, who place a very strong emphasis on Maimonides as a rationalist. The result of this is many sides of Maimonides's thought, for example his opposition to anthropocentrism, have been obviated. There is some movement in postmodern circles, e.g. within the discourse of ecotheology, to claim Maimonides for other purposes. Maimonides's reconciliation of the philosophical and the traditional has given his legacy an extremely diverse and dynamic quality.

Seljuk Turks!

The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks[1], Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian: سلجوقيان Ṣaljūqīyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Turco-Persian Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. They set up an empire known as Great Seljuq Empire that stretched from Anatolia through Persia and was the target of the First Crusade. The dynasty had its origins in the Turcoman tribal confederations of Central Asia and marked the beginning of Turkic power in the Middle East. After arriving in Persia, the Seljuqs accepted the Persian culture and language[, and played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition which features "Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers." Today, they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art, literature, and language and are regarded by some as the cultural ancestors of the Western Turks – the present-day inhabitants of Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Turkmenistan.

Prior to the ninth century, hordes of Turks had crossed the Volga River into the Black Sea steppes. Originally, the House of Seljuq was a branch of the Qinik Oghuz Turks who in the 9th century lived on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral sea in their Yabghu Khaganate of the Oghuz confederacy,[16] in the Kazakh Steppe of Turkestan.[17] In the 10th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they mixed with the local population and accepted the Persian culture and language in the following decades.

The "Great Seljuqs" were heads of the family; in theory their authority extended over all the other Seljuq lines, although in practice this often was not the case. Turkish custom called for the senior member of the family to be the Great Seljuq, although usually the position was associated with the ruler of western Persia.

* Tugrul I (Tugrul Beg) 1037–1063
* Alp Arslan bin Chaghri 1063–1072
* Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah I 1072–1092
* Nasir ad-Din Mahmud I 1092–1093
* Rukn ad-Din Barkiyaruq 1093–1104
* Mu'izz ad-Din Malik Shah II 1105
* Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad/Mehmed I Tapar 1105–1118

Muhammad's son Mahmud II succeeded him in western Persia, but Sanjar, the governor of Khurasan from 1097 and the senior member of the family, becomes Great Seljuq sultan

The Oghuz take control of much of Khurasan, with the remainder in the hands of former Seljuq emirs


The rulers of western Persia, who maintained a very loose grip on the Abbasids of Baghdad. Several Turkish emirs gained a strong level of influence in the region, such as the Eldiduzids.

* Mahmud II 1118–1131
* Da'ud (in Jibal and Iranian Azerbaijan) 1131
* Tuğrul II 1131–1134
* Mas'ud 1134–1152
* Malik Shah III 1152–1153
* Muhammad II 1153–1160
* Suleiman Shah 1160–1161
* Arslan Shah 1161–1174
* Tugrul III 1174–1194

Tugrul III killed in battle with the Khwarazmshah, who annexes Hamadan

Kerman was a province in southern Persia. It ruled also Umman between 1053-1154

* Qawurd 1041–1073
* Kerman Shah 1073–1074
* Sultan Shah 1074–1075
* Hussain Omar 1075–1084
* Turan Shah I 1084–1096
* Iran Shah 1096–1101
* Arslan Shah I 1101–1142
* Mehmed I (Muhammad) 1142–1156
* Toğrül Shah 1156–1169
* Bahram Shah 1169–1174
* Arslan Shah II 1174–1176
* Turan Shah II 1176–1183
* Muhammad Shah 1183–1187

Muhammad abandons Kerman, which falls into the hands of the Oghuz chief Malik Dinar. Kerman finally annexed by Khwarezmid Empire in 1196.

Alp Arslan humiliating Emperor Romanos IV after the Battle of Manzikert. From a 15th-century illustrated French translation of Boccacio's De Casibus Virorum Illustrium.

* Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1085–1086
* Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah I of Great Seljuq 1086–1087
* Qasim ad-Dawla Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hajib 1087–1094
* Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (second time) 1094–1095
* Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan 1095–1113
* Tadj ad-Dawla Alp Arslan al-Akhras 1113–1114
* Sultan Shah 1114–1123

To the Artuqids

Sultans/Emirs of Damascus:

* Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi 1076–1079
* Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1079–1095
* Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq 1095–1104
* Tutush II 1104
* Muhi ad-Din Baqtash 1104

Damascus seized by the Burid Toghtekin

Seljuq sultans of Rûm (Anatolia) 1077–1307

The Kharāghān twin towers, built in 1053 in Iran, is the burial of Seljuq princes.
The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in 1190, before the Third Crusade

* Kutalmish 1060–1077
* Suleyman Ibn Kutalmish (Suleiman) 1077–1086
* Dawud Kilij Arslan I 1092–1107
* Malik Shah 1107–1116
* Rukn ad-Din Mas'ud 1116–1156
* Izz ad-Din Kilij Arslan II 1156–1192
* Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I 1192–1196
* Suleyman II (Suleiman) 1196–1204
* Kilij Arslan III 1204–1205
* Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I (second time) 1205–1211
* Izz ad-Din Kaykaus I 1211–1220
* Ala ad-Din Kay Qubadh I 1220–1237
* Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw II 1237–1246
* Izz ad-Din Kaykaus II 1246–1260
* Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan IV 1248–1265
* Ala ad-Din Kayqubad II 1249–1257
* Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw III 1265–1282
* Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1282–1284
* Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1284
* Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II (second time) 1284–1293
* Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III (second time) 1293–1294
* Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II (third time) 1294–1301
* Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III (third time) 1301–1303
* Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II (fourth time) 1303–1307

The Seljuq line, already having been deprived of any significant power, effectively ends in the early fourteenth century

Soliman The Great !

Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: سليمان Sulaymān, Turkish: Süleyman; almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) (27 April 1494/1495/6 November 1494 – 5/6/7 September 1566), was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. He is known in the West as Suleiman the Magnificent[1] and in the East, as the Lawgiver (in Turkish Kanuni; Arabic: القانونى‎, al‐Qānūnī), for his complete reconstruction of the Ottoman legal system. Suleiman became a prominent monarch of 16th century Europe, presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's military, political and economic power. Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies to conquer the Christian strongholds of Belgrade, Rhodes, and most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529. He annexed most of the Middle East in his conflict with the Persians and large swaths of North Africa as far west as Algeria. Under his rule, the Ottoman fleet dominated the seas from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.

At the helm of an expanding empire, Suleiman personally instituted legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation, and criminal law. His canonical law (or the Kanuns) fixed the form of the empire for centuries after his death. Not only was Suleiman a distinguished poet and goldsmith in his own right; he also became a great patron of culture, overseeing the golden age of the Ottoman Empire's artistic, literary and architectural development.

In a break with Ottoman tradition, Suleiman married (as his fourth wife) a harem girl, Roxelana, who became Hürrem Sultan; her intrigues as queen in the court and power over the Sultan have become as famous as Suleiman himself. Their son, Selim II, succeeded Suleiman following his death in 1566 after 46 years of rule.
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Suleiman was born in Trabzon along the coast of the Black Sea, probably on 6 November 1494. His mother was Valide Sultan Aishe Hafsa Sultan or Hafsa Hatun Sultan, who died in 1534. At the age of seven, he was sent to study science, history, literature, theology, and military tactics in the schools of the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. As a young man, he befriended Ibrahim, a slave who later became one of his most trusted advisers. From the age of seventeen, young Suleiman was appointed as the governor of first Kaffa (Theodosia), then Sarukhan (Manisa) with a brief tenure at Edirne . Upon the death of his father, Selim I (1465–1520), Suleiman entered Istanbul and acceded to the throne as the tenth Ottoman Sultan. An early description of Suleiman, a few weeks following his accession, was provided by the Venetian envoy Bartolomeo Contarini: "He is twenty-five years of age, tall, but wiry, and of a delicate complexion. His neck is a little too long, his face thin, and his nose aquiline. He has a shade of a moustache and a small beard; nevertheless he has a pleasant mien, though his skin tends to pallor. He is said to be a wise Lord, fond of study, and all men hope for good from his rule. His turban is also excessively large." Some historians claim that in his youth Suleiman had an admiration for Alexander the Great. He was influenced by Alexander's vision of building a world empire that would encompass the east and the west, and this created a drive for his subsequent military campaigns in Asia and in Africa, as well as in Europe.

Upon succeeding his father, Suleiman began a series of military conquests, eventually putting down a revolt led by the Ottoman-appointed governor of Damascus in 1521. Suleiman soon made preparations for the conquest of Belgrade from the Kingdom of Hungary—something his great-grandfather Mehmed II had failed to achieve. Its capture was vital in eliminating the Hungarians who, following the defeats of the Serbs, Bulgarians and Byzantines, remained the only formidable force who could block further Ottoman gains in Europe. Suleiman encircled Belgrade and began a series of heavy bombardments from an island in the Danube. With a garrison of only 700 men, and receiving no aid from Hungary, Belgrade fell in August 1521.

News of the conquest of one of Christendom's major strongholds spread fear across Europe. As the ambassador of the Holy Roman Empire to Istanbul was to note, "The capture of Belgrade was at the origin of the dramatic events which engulfed Hungary. It led to the death of King Louis, the capture of Buda, the occupation of Transylvania, the ruin of a flourishing kingdom and the fear of neighbouring nations that they would suffer the same fate…"

The road to Hungary and Austria lay open, but Suleiman diverted his attention to the Eastern Mediterranean island of Rhodes, the home base of the Knights Hospitaller, whose activities as pirates near Asia Minor and the Levant had posed a perennial problem to Ottoman interests. In the summer of 1522, taking advantage of the navy he inherited from his father, Suleiman dispatched an armada of some 400 ships whilst personally leading an army of 100,000 across Asia Minor to a point opposite the island. Following a siege of five months with brutal encounters, Rhodes capitulated and Suleiman allowed the Knights of Rhodes to depart. They eventually formed their new base in Malta.

As relations between Hungary and the Ottoman Empire deteriorated, Suleiman resumed his campaign in Eastern Europe and on 29 August 1526, he defeated Louis II of Hungary (1506–26) at the Battle of Mohács. In its wake, Hungarian resistance collapsed and the Ottoman Empire became the pre-eminent power in Eastern Europe. Upon encountering the lifeless body of King Louis, Suleiman is said to have lamented: "I came indeed in arms against him; but it was not my wish that he should be thus cut off while he scarcely tasted the sweets of life and royalty."

Under Charles V and his brother Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, the Habsburgs reoccupied Buda and took Hungary. As a result, in 1529, Suleiman once again marched through the valley of the Danube and regained control of Buda and in the following autumn laid siege to Vienna. It was to be the Ottoman Empire's most ambitious expedition and the apogee of its drive towards the West. With a reinforced garrison of 16,000 men, the Austrians inflicted upon Suleiman his first defeat, sowing the seeds of a bitter Ottoman-Habsburg rivalry which lasted until the 20th century. A second attempt to conquer Vienna failed in 1532, with Suleiman retreating before reaching the city. In both cases, the Ottoman army was plagued by bad weather (forcing them to leave behind essential siege equipment) and was hobbled by overstretched supply lines.

By the 1540s a renewal of the conflict in Hungary presented Suleiman with the opportunity to avenge the defeat suffered at Vienna. Some Hungarian nobles proposed that Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria (1519–64), who was ruler of neighbouring Austria and tied to Louis II's family by marriage, be King of Hungary, citing previous agreements that the Habsburgs would take the Hungarian throne if Louis died without heirs. However, other nobles turned to the nobleman John Zápolya who, being supported by Suleiman, remained unrecognized by the Christian powers of Europe. In 1541 the Habsburgs once again engaged in conflict with the Ottomans, attempting to lay siege to Buda. With their efforts repulsed, and more Habsburg fortresses captured as a result,Ferdinand and his brother Charles V were forced to conclude a humiliating five-year treaty with Suleiman. Ferdinand renounced his claim to the Kingdom of Hungary and was forced to pay a fixed yearly sum to the Sultan for the Hungarian lands he continued to control. Of more symbolic importance, the treaty referred to Charles V not as 'Emperor', but in rather plainer terms as the 'King of Spain', leading Suleiman to consider himself the true 'Caesar'.

With his main European rivals subdued, Suleiman had assured the Ottoman Empire a powerful role in the political landscape of Europe.

As Suleiman stabilized his European frontiers, he now turned his attention to the ever present threat posed by the Shi'a Safavid dynasty of Persia (Iran). Two events in particular were to precipitate a recurrence of tensions. First, Shah Tahmasp had the Baghdad governor loyal to Suleiman killed and replaced with an adherent of the Shah, and second, the governor of Bitlis had defected and sworn allegiance to the Safavids. As a result, in 1533, Suleiman ordered his Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha to lead an army into Asia where he retook Bitlis and occupied Tabriz without resistance. Having joined Ibrahim in 1534, Suleiman made a push towards Persia, only to find the Shah sacrificing territory instead of facing a pitched battle, resorting to harassment of the Ottoman army as it proceeded along the harsh interior. When in the following year Suleiman and Ibrahim made a grand entrance into Baghdad, its commander surrendered the city, thereby confirming Suleiman as the leader of the Islamic world and the legitimate successor to the Abbasid Caliphs.

Attempting to defeat the Shah once and for all, Suleiman embarked upon a second campaign in 1548–1549. As in the previous attempt, Tahmasp avoided confrontation with the Ottoman army and instead chose to retreat, torching Azerbaijan in the process and exposing the Ottoman army to the harsh winter of the Caucasus. Suleiman abandoned the campaign with temporary Ottoman gains in Tabriz and the Azerbaijan region of Iran, a lasting presence in the province of Van, and some forts in Georgia.

In 1553 Suleiman began his third and final campaign against the Shah. Having initially lost territories in Erzurum to the Shah's son, Suleiman retaliated by recapturing Erzurum, crossing the Upper Euphrates and laying waste to parts of Persia. The Shah's army continued its strategy of avoiding the Ottomans, leading to a stalemate from which neither army made any significant gain. In 1554, a settlement was signed which was to conclude Suleiman's Asian campaigns. It included the return of Tabriz, but secured Baghdad, lower Mesopotamia, the mouths of the river Euphrates and Tigris, as well as part of the Persian Gulf. The Shah also promised to cease all raids into Ottoman territory.

Having consolidated his conquests on land, Suleiman was greeted with the news that the fortress of Koroni in Morea (the modern Peloponnese) had been lost to Charles V's admiral, Andrea Doria. The presence of the Spanish in the Eastern Mediterranean concerned Suleiman, who saw it as an early indication of Charles V's intention to rival Ottoman dominance in the region. Recognizing the need to reassert the navy's preeminence in the Mediterranean, Suleiman appointed an exceptional naval commander in the form of Khair ad Din, known to Europeans as Barbarossa. Once appointed admiral-in-chief, Barbarossa was charged with rebuilding the Ottoman fleet, to such an extent that the Ottoman navy equalled in number those of all other Mediterranean countries put together. In 1535 Charles V won an important victory against the Ottomans at Tunis, which together with the war against Venice the following year, led Suleiman to accept proposals from Francis I of France to form an alliance against Charles. In 1538, the Spanish fleet was defeated by Barbarossa at the Battle of Preveza, securing the eastern Mediterranean for the Turks for 33 years until the defeat at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

East of Morocco, huge territories in North Africa were annexed. The Barbary States of Tripolitania, Tunisia, and Algeria became autonomous provinces of the Empire, serving as the leading edge of Suleiman's conflict with Charles V, whose attempt to drive out the Turks failed in 1541. The piracy carried on thereafter by the Barbary pirates of North Africa can be seen in the context of the wars against Spain. For a short period Ottoman expansion secured naval dominance in the Mediterranean. Ottoman navies also controlled the Red Sea, and held the Persian Gulf until 1554, when their ships were defeated by the navy of the Portuguese Empire. The Portuguese had taken Ormus (in the Strait of Hormuz) in 1515 and would continue to vie with Suleiman's forces for control of Aden, in present-day Yemen.

In 1542, facing a common Habsburg enemy, Francis I sought to renew the Franco-Ottoman alliance. As a result, Suleiman dispatched 100 galleys under Barbarossa to assist the French in the western Mediterranean. Barbarossa pillaged the coast of Naples and Sicily before reaching France where Francis made Toulon the Ottoman admirals naval headquarters. The same campaign had seen Barbarossa attack and capture Nice in 1543. By 1544, a peace between Francis I and Charles V had put a temporary end to the alliance between France and the Ottoman Empire.

Elsewhere in the Mediterranean, when the Knights Hospitallers were re-established as the Knights of Malta in 1530, their actions against Muslim navies quickly drew the ire of the Ottomans who assembled another massive army in order to dislodge the Knights from Malta. The Ottomans invaded in 1565, undertaking the Great Siege of Malta, which began on May 18 and lasted until September 8, and is portrayed vividly in the frescoes of Matteo Perez d'Aleccio in the Hall of St. Michael and St. George. At first it seemed that this would be a repeat of the battle on Rhodes, with most of Malta's cities destroyed and half the Knights killed in battle; but a relief force from Spain entered the battle, resulting in the loss of 30,000 Ottoman troops.

Whilst Sultan Suleiman was known as "the Magnificent" in the West, he was always Kanuni Suleiman or "The Lawgiver" to his own Ottoman subjects. As the historian Lord Kinross notes, "Not only was he a great military campaigner, a man of the sword, as his father and great-grandfather had been before him. He differed from them in the extent to which he was also a man of the pen. He was a great legislator, standing out in the eyes of his people as a high-minded sovereign and a magnanimous exponent of justice". The overriding law of the empire was the Shari'ah, or Sacred Law, which as the divine law of Islam was outside of the Sultan's powers to change. Yet an area of distinct law known as the Kanuns (canonical legislation) was dependent on Suleiman's will alone, covering areas such as criminal law, land tenure and taxation. He collected all the judgments that had been issued by the nine Ottoman Sultans who preceded him. After eliminating duplications and choosing between contradictory statements, he issued a single legal code, all the while being careful not to violate the basic laws of Islam. It was within this framework that Suleiman, supported by his Grand Mufti Ebussuud, sought to reform the legislation to adapt to a rapidly changing empire. When the Kanun laws attained their final form, the code of laws became known as the kanun‐i Osmani, or the "Ottoman laws". Suleiman's legal code was to last more than three hundred years.

Suleiman gave particular attention to the plight of the rayas, Christian subjects who worked the land of the Sipahis. His Kanune Raya, or "Code of the Rayas", reformed the law governing levies and taxes to be paid by the rayas, raising their status above serfdom to the extent that Christian serfs would migrate to Turkish territories to benefit from the reforms. The Sultan also played a role in protecting the Jewish subjects of his empire for centuries to come. In late 1553 or 1554, on the suggestion of his favorite doctor and dentist, the Spanish Jew Moses Hamon, the Sultan issued a firman formally denouncing blood libels against the Jews.

Furthermore, Suleiman enacted new criminal and police legislation, prescribing a set of fines for specific offences, as well as reducing the instances requiring death or mutilation. In the area of taxation, taxes were levied on various goods and produce, including animals, mines, profits of trade, and import-export duties. In addition to taxes, officials who had fallen into disrepute were likely to have their land and property confiscated by the Sultan.

Education was another important area for the Sultan. Schools attached to mosques and funded by religious foundations provided a largely free education to Muslim boys in advance of the Christian countries of the time.[38] In his capital, Suleiman increased the number of mektebs (primary schools) to fourteen, teaching children to read and write as well as the principles of Islam. Children wishing further education could proceed to one of eight medreses (colleges), whose studies included grammar, metaphysics, philosophy, astronomy, and astrology.

Higher medreses provided education of university status, whose graduates became imams or teachers. Educational centers were often one of many buildings surrounding the courtyards of mosques, others included libraries, refectories, fountains, soup kitchens and hospitals for the benefit of the public.


Under Suleiman's patronage, the Ottoman empire entered the golden age of its cultural development. Hundreds of imperial artistic societies (called the Ehl-i Hiref, "Community of the Talented") were administered at the Imperial seat, the Topkapı Palace. After an apprenticeship, artists and craftsmen could advance in rank within their field and were paid commensurate wages in quarterly annual installments. Payroll registers that survive testify to the breadth of Suleiman's patronage of the arts, the earliest of documents dating from 1526 list 40 societies with over 600 members. The Ehl-i Hiref attracted the empire's most talented artisans to the Sultan's court, both from the Islamic world and recently conquered territories in Europe, resulting in a blend of Islamic, Turkish and European cultures. Artisans in service of the court included painters, book binders, furriers, jewellers and goldsmiths. Whereas previous rulers had been influenced by Persian culture (Suleiman's father, Selim I, wrote poetry in Persian), Suleiman's patronage of the arts had seen the Ottoman Empire assert its own artistic legacy.

Suleiman himself was an accomplished poet, writing in Persian and Turkish under the nom de plume Muhibbi (Lover). Some of Suleiman's verses have become Turkish proverbs, such as the well-known Everyone aims at the same meaning, but many are the versions of the story. When his young son Mehmed died in 1543, he composed a moving chronogram to commemorate the year: Peerless among princes, my Sultan Mehmed.

In addition to Suleiman's own work, many great talents enlivened the literary world during Suleiman's rule, including Fuzuli and Baki. The literary historian E. J. W. Gibb observed that "at no time, even in Turkey, was greater encouragement given to poetry than during the reign of this Sultan".[41] Suleiman's most famous verse is:
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, built by Mimar Sinan, Suleiman's chief architect.


The people think of wealth and power as the greatest fate,
But in this world a spell of health is the best state.
What men call sovereignty is a worldly strife and constant war;
Worship of God is the highest throne, the happiest of all estates.

Suleiman also became renowned for sponsoring a series of monumental architectural developments within his empire. The Sultan sought to turn Istanbul into the center of Islamic civilization by a series of projects, including bridges, mosques, palaces and various charitable and social establishments. The greatest of these were built by the Sultan's chief architect, Mimar Sinan, under whom Ottoman architecture reached its zenith. Sinan became responsible for over three hundred monuments throughout the empire, including his two masterpieces, the Süleymaniye and Selimiye mosques—the latter built in Edirne in the reign of Suleiman's son Selim II. Suleiman also restored the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the Jerusalem city walls (which are the current walls of the Old City of Jerusalem), renovated the Kaaba in Mecca, and constructed a complex in Damascus.

Suleiman was infatuated with Hürrem Sultan, a harem girl of Ruthenian origin. In the West foreign diplomats, taking notice of the palace gossip about her, called her "Russelazie" or "Roxelana", referring to her Slavic origins. The daughter of an Orthodox Ukrainian priest, she was enslaved and rose through the ranks of the Harem to become Suleiman's favourite. Breaking with two centuries of Ottoman tradition,a former concubine had thus become the legal wife of the Sultan, much to the astonishment of observers in the palace and the city.[46] He also allowed Hürrem Sultan to remain with him at court for the rest of her life, breaking another tradition—that when imperial heirs came of age, they would be sent along with the imperial concubine who bore them to govern remote provinces of the Empire, never to return unless their progeny succeeded to the throne.

Under his pen name, Muhibbi, Suleiman composed this poem for Roxelana:

"Throne of my lonely niche, my wealth, my love, my moonlight.
My most sincere friend, my confidant, my very existence, my Sultan, my one and only love.
The most beautiful among the beautiful…
My springtime, my merry faced love, my daytime, my sweetheart, laughing leaf…
My plants, my sweet, my rose, the one only who does not distress me in this world…
My Istanbul, my Caraman, the earth of my Anatolia
My Badakhshan, my Baghdad and Khorasan
My woman of the beautiful hair, my love of the slanted brow, my love of eyes full of mischief…
I'll sing your praises always
I, lover of the tormented heart, Muhibbi of the eyes full of tears, I am happy."


Pargalı İbrahim Pasha was the boyhood friend of Suleiman. Ibrahim was originally Greek Orthodox and when young was educated at the Palace School under the devshirme system. Suleiman made him the royal falconer, then promoted him to first officer of the Royal Bedchamber. Ibrahim Pasha rose to Grand Vizier in 1523 and commander-in-chief of all the armies. Suleiman also conferred upon Ibrahim Pasha the honor of beylerbey of Rumelia, granting Ibrahim authority over all Turkish territories in Europe, as well as command of troops residing within them in times of war. According to a 17th century chronicler, Ibrahim had asked Suleiman not to promote him to such high positions, fearing for his safety; to which Suleiman replied that under his reign no matter what the circumstance, Ibrahim would never be put to death.

Yet Ibrahim eventually fell from grace with the Sultan. During his thirteen years as Grand Vizier, his rapid rise to power and vast accumulation of wealth had made Ibrahim many enemies among the Sultan's court. Reports had reached the Sultan of Ibrahim's impudence during a campaign against the Persian Safavid empire: in particular his adoption of the title serasker sultan was seen as a grave affront to Suleiman.

Suleiman's suspicion of Ibrahim was worsened by a quarrel between the latter and the Minister of Finance Iskender Chelebi. The dispute ended in the disgrace of Chelebi on charges of intrigue, with Ibrahim convincing Suleiman to sentence the Minister to death. Before his death however, Chelebi's last words were to accuse Ibrahim of conspiracy against the Sultan.[54] These dying words convinced Suleiman of Ibrahim's disloyalty,and on 15 March 1536 Ibrahim's lifeless body was discovered in the Topkapi Palace.

Suleiman's two wives had borne him eight sons, four of whom survived past the 1550s. They were Mustafa, Selim, Bayezid, and Jihangir. Of these, only Mustafa was not Hürrem Sultan's son, but rather Gülbahar Sultan's ("Rose of Spring"), and therefore preceded Hürrem's children in the order of succession. Hürrem was aware that should Mustafa become Sultan her own children would be strangled. Yet Mustafa was recognised as the most talented of all the brothers and was supported by Pargalı İbrahim Pasha, who was by this time Suleiman's Grand Vizier. The Austrian ambassador Busbecq would note "Suleiman has among his children a son called Mustafa, marvellously well educated and prudent and of an age to rule, since he is 24 or 25 years old; may God never allow a Barbary of such strength to come near us", going on to talk of Mustafa's "remarkable natural gifts".

Hürrem is usually held at least partly responsible for the intrigues in nominating a successor. Although she was Suleiman's wife, she exercised no official public role as her contemporary in England, Anne Boleyn, had done. This did not, however, prevent Hürrem from wielding powerful political influence. Since the Empire lacked any formal means of nominating a successor, succession usually involved the death of competing princes in order to avert civil unrest and rebellions. In attempting to avoid the execution of her sons, Hürrem used her influence to eliminate those who supported Mustafa's accession to the throne.

Thus in power struggles apparently instigated by Hürrem, Suleiman had Ibrahim murdered and replaced with her sympathetic son-in-law, Rustem Pasha. By 1552, when the campaign against Persia had begun with Rustem appointed commander-in-chief of the expedition, intrigues against Mustafa began. Rustem sent one of Suleiman's most trusted men to report that since Suleiman was not at the head of the army, the soldiers thought the time had come to put a younger prince on the throne; at the same time he spread rumors that Mustafa had proved receptive to the idea. Angered by what he came to believe were Mustafa's plans to claim the throne, the following summer Suleiman summoned him to his tent, stating he would "be able to clear himself of the crimes he was accused of and would have nothing to fear if he came".

Mustafa was confronted with a choice: either he appeared before his father at the risk of being killed; or, if he refused to attend, he would be accused of betrayal. In the end, Mustafa chose to enter his father's tent, confident that the support of the army would protect him. Busbecq, who claims to have received an account from an eyewitness, describes Mustafa's final moments. As Mustafa entered his father's tent, Suleiman's Eunuchs attacked Mustafa, with the young prince putting up a brave defence. Suleiman, separated from the struggle only by the linen hangings of the tent, peered through the chamber of his tent and "directed fierce and threatening glances upon the mutes, and by menacing gestures sternly rebuked their hesitation. Thereupon, the mutes in their alarm, redoubling their efforts, hurled Mustafa to the ground and, throwing the bowstring round his neck, strangled him."

Jihangir is said to have died of grief a few months after the news of his half-brother's murder.[59] The two surviving brothers, Bayezid and Selim, were given command in different parts of the empire. Within a few years, however, civil war broke out between the brothers, each supported by his loyal forces.

With the aid of his father's army, Selim defeated Bayezid in Konya in 1559, leading the latter to seek refuge with the Persians along with his four sons. Following diplomatic exchanges, the Sultan demanded from the Persian Shah that Bayezid be either extradited or executed. In return for large amounts of gold, the Shah allowed a Turkish executioner to strangle Bayezid and his four sons in 1561, clearing the path for Selim's succession to the throne seven years later. On 5/6 September 1566,[61] Suleiman, who had set out from Istanbul to command an expedition to Hungary, died before an Ottoman victory at the Battle of Szigetvár in Hungary.

Suleiman I's conquests were followed by continuous territorial expansion until the Empire's peak in 1683

At the time of Suleiman's death the Ottoman Empire, with its unrivaled military strength, economic riches and territorial extent, was the world's foremost power. Suleiman's conquests had brought under the control of the Empire the major Muslim cities (Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Damascus, and Baghdad), many Balkan provinces (reaching present day Croatia and Austria), and most of North Africa. His expansion into Europe had given the Ottoman Turks a powerful presence in the European balance of power. Indeed, such was the perceived threat of the Ottoman Empire under the reign of Suleiman that ambassador Busbecq warned of Europe's imminent conquest: "On [the Turks'] side are the resources of a mighty empire, strength unimpaired, habituation to victory, endurance of toil, unity, discipline, frugality and watchfulness... Can we doubt what the result will be?...When the Turks have settled with Persia, they will fly at our throats supported by the might of the whole East; how unprepared we are I dare not say."[64] Even thirty years after his death "Sultan Solyman" was quoted by the English author William Shakespeare as a military prodigy in The Merchant of Venice.

Suleiman's legacy was not, however, merely in the military field. The French traveler Jean de Thévenot a century later bears witness to the "strong agricultural base of the country, the well being of the peasantry, the abundance of staple foods, and the pre-eminence of organization in Suleiman's government". The administrative and legal reforms which earned him the name Law Giver ensured the Empire's survival long after his death, an achievement which "took many generations of decadent heirs to undo".

Through his personal patronage, Suleiman also presided over the Golden Age of the Ottoman Empire, representing the pinnacle of the Ottoman Turks' cultural achievement in the realm of architecture, literature, art, theology and philosophy.[3][67] Today the skyline of the Bosphorus, and of many cities in modern Turkey and the former Ottoman provinces, are still adorned with the architectural works of Mimar Sinan. One of these, the Süleymaniye Mosque, is the final resting place of Suleiman and Herenzaltan: they are buried in separate domed mausoleums attached to the mosque.

Who was Ruy Diaz De Vivar?

Ruy Díaz de Vivar (c. 1040, Vivar, near Burgos – July 10, 1099, Valencia), known as El Cid Campeador, was a Castilian nobleman, a gifted military leader and diplomat who, after being exiled, conquered and governed the city of Valencia. Rodrigo Díaz was educated in the royal court of Castile and became the alférez, or chief general, of Alfonso VI, and his most valuable asset in the fight against the Moors.

The name "El Cid" comes from the Spanish article El, and the dialectal Arab word سيد sîdi or sayyid, which means "Lord". The title Campeador comes from campidoctor, a medieval Latin word roughly meaning "master of military arts", so El Cid Campeador translates as "The lord, master of military arts". He is considered the national hero of Spain.

The Cid was born circa 1040 in Vivar, also known as Castillona de Bivar, a small town about six miles north of Burgos, the capital of Castile. His father, Diego Laínez, was a courtier, bureaucrat, and cavalryman who had fought in several battles. Despite the fact that El Cid's mother's family was aristocratic, in later years the peasants would consider him one of their own. However, his relatives were not major court officials; documents show that El Cid's paternal grandfather, Lain, only confirmed five documents of Ferdinand I's, his maternal grandfather, Rodrigo Alvarez, certified only two of Sancho II's, and the Cid's own father confirmed only one. This seems to indicate that El Cid's family was not composed of major court officials.

El Cid was educated in the Castilian royal court, serving the prince and future king Sancho II, the son of King Ferdinand I. When Ferdinand died in 1065, Sancho continued to enlarge his territory, conquering both Christian and the Moorish cities of Zamora and Badajoz.

As a young adult in 1057, Rodrigo fought against the Moorish stronghold of Zaragoza, making its emir al-Muqtadir a vassal of Sancho. In the spring of 1063, he fought in the Battle of Graus, where Ferdinand's half-brother, Ramiro I of Aragon, was laying siege to the Moorish town of Graus which was in Zaragozan lands. Al-Muqtadir, accompanied by Castilian troops including the Cid, fought against the Aragonese. The party would emerge victorious; Ramiro I was killed and the Aragonese fled the field. One legend has said that during the conflict El Cid killed an Aragonese knight in single combat, giving him the honorific title of "El Cid Campeador".

Campeador is the Old Spanish version of the Latin campi doctor or campi doctus; the term can be found in writings of late Latinity (4th – 5th century) and can be found in some inscriptions of that era. After that period it became rare, although still sometimes found in the writings of the less educated writers of the Middle Ages. The literal significance of the expression campi doctor is "master of the military arts", and its use in the period of the late Roman Empire appears to have signified only one who instructed new military recruits. But it was in current usage when El Cid was still alive, and was applied to Rodrigo by a member of his circle in an official document promulgated in his name in 1098.

Much speculation abounds about Sancho's death. Most say that the assassination was a result of a pact between his brother Alfonso and his sister Urraca ; some even say Alfonso and Urraca had an incestuous relationship. In any case, since Sancho died unmarried and childless, all of his power passed to his brother Alfonso — the very person against whom he had fought.

Almost immediately, Alfonso was recalled from exile in Toledo and took his seat as king of León and Castile. He was deeply suspected in Castile, probably correctly, for being involved in Sancho's murder. According to the epic of El Cid, the Castilian nobility led by the Cid and a dozen "oath-helpers", forced Alfonso to swear publicly in front of Santa Gadea (Saint Agatha) Church in Burgos on holy relics multiple times that he did not participate in the plot to kill his brother. This is widely reported as truth but contemporary documents on the lives of both Alfonso VI of Castile and Leon and Rodrigo Diaz do not mention any such event. The Cid's position as armiger regis was taken away, however, and it was given to the Cid's enemy, Count García Ordóñez. Later in the year Alfonso's younger brother García returned to Galicia under the false pretenses of a conference.
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During his campaigns, the Cid often ordered that books by classic Roman and Greek authors on military themes be read in high-pitched, loud voices to him and his troops, both for entertainment and inspiration before battle. El Cid's army had a novel approach to planning strategy as well, holding what might be called brainstorming sessions before each battle to discuss tactics. They frequently used unexpected strategies, engaging in what modern generals would call psychological warfare — waiting for the enemy to be paralyzed with terror and then attacking them suddenly, distracting the enemy with a small group of soldiers, etc. (El Cid used this distraction in capturing the town of Castejón as depicted in "The Poem of the Cid") El Cid had a humble personality and frequently accepted or included suggestions from his troops. He remained open to input from his soldiers and to the possibility that he himself was capable of error. The man who served him as his closest adviser was his kinsman, Alvar Fáñez de Minaya.

Taken together, these practices imply an educated and intelligent commander who was able to attract and inspire good subordinates, and who would have attracted considerable loyalty from his followers including those who were not Christian. It is these qualities, coupled with El Cid's legendary martial abilities, which have fueled his reputation as an outstanding battlefield commander.

El Cid was married in July 1075 to Alfonso's kinswoman Jimena of Oviedo The Historia Roderici calls her daughter of a Count Diego of Oviedo, a person unknown to contemporary records, while later poetic sources name her father as an otherwise unknown Count Gomez de Gormaz. The marriage was probably on Alfonso's suggestion[citation needed], a move that he probably hoped would improve relations between him and El Cid; although we are told[who?] that when the Cid laid eyes on her he was enamored by her beauty. Together El Cid and Jimena had three children. Their daughters Cristina and María both married high nobility; Cristina to Ramiro, Lord of Monzón, grandson of García Sánchez III of Navarre via an illegitimate son; María, first (it is said) to a prince of Aragon (presumably the son of Peter I) and second to Ramón Berenguer III, count of Barcelona. El Cid's son Diego Rodríguez was killed while fighting against the invading Muslim Almoravids from North Africa at the Battle of Consuegra (1097).

His own marriage and that of his daughters increased his status by connecting El Cid to royalty; even today, living monarchs descend from El Cid, through the lines of Navarre and Foix. El Cid is an ancestor to the monarchies of France and Britain, as well as every other monarchy in Europe, through his daughter Cristina's son, king García Ramírez of Navarre, as well as most of their nobility and even many of the people, which once considered him one of their own.

El Cid was a cultivated man, having served Alfonso as a judge. He kept in life a personal archive with copies of the letters he mailed and important diplomas he signed as part of his co-operation in the king's administration.

In the Battle of Cabra (1079), El Cid rallied his troops and turned the battle into a rout of Emir Abd Allah of Granada and his ally García Ordóñez. However, El Cid's unauthorized expedition into Granada greatly angered Alfonso, and May 8, 1080, was the last time El Cid confirmed a document in King Alfonso's court. This is the generally given reason for El Cid's exile, although several others are plausible and may have been contributing factors: jealous nobles turning Alfonso against El Cid, Alfonso's own animosity towards El Cid, an accusation of pocketing some of the tribute from Seville, and what one source[citation needed] describes as El Cid's "penchant" towards insulting powerful men.

However, the exile was not the end of El Cid, either physically or as an important figure. In 1081, El Cid, now a mercenary, offered his services to the Moorish king of the northeast Al-Andaluz city of Zaragoza, Yusuf al-Mutamin, and served both him and his successor, Al-Mustain II.

O'Callaghan writes:

At first he went to Barcelona where Ramón Berenguer II (1076-1082) and Berenguer Ramón II (1076-1097) refused his offer of service. Then he journeyed to Zaragoza where he received a warmer welcome. That kingdom was divided between al-Mutamin (1081-1085) who ruled Zaragoza proper, and his brother al-Mundhir, who ruled Lérida and Tortosa. El Cid entered al-Mutamin's service and successfully defended Zaragoza against the assaults of al-Mutamdhir, Sancho I of Aragón, and Ramón Berenguer II, whom he held captive briefly in 1082.

In 1086, the great Almoravid invasion of the Iberian Peninsula through and around Gibraltar began. The Almoravids, Berber residents of present-day Morocco and Algeria, led by Yusuf ibn Tashfin,were asked to help defend the Moors from Alfonso. The great Battle of az-Zallaqah took place on Friday, October 23, 1086, at Sagrajas (in Arabic, Zallaqa). The Moorish Andalusians, including the armies of Badajoz, Málaga, Granada and Seville, defeated a combined army of León, Aragón and Castile.


"The Andalusians encamped separately from the Murabitun [Almoravids]. The Christian vanguard (Alvar Fañez) surprised the Andalusian camp before dawn; the men of Seville (Al-Mutamid) held firm but the remaining Andalusians were chased off by the Aragonese cavalry. The Christian main body then attacked the Murabitun, but were held in check by the Lamtuma, and then withdrew to their own camp in response to an outflanking move by ibn Tashufin. The Aragonese returned to the field, didn't like what they saw, and started a withdrawal that became a rout. The Andalusians rallied, and the Muslims drove Alfonso to a small hill. Alfonso and 500 knights escaped in the night to Toledo."

Terrified after his crushing defeat, Alfonso recalled the best Christian general from exile — El Cid. It has been shown that the Cid was at court on July 1087; however, what happened after that is unclear. There is an urban legend that El Cid's ghost is still present in Vivar and in Burgos.

Around this time, the Cid, with a combined Christian and Moorish army, began maneuvering in order to create his own fiefdom in the Moorish Mediterranean coastal city of Valencia. Several obstacles lay in his way. First was Ramón Berenguer II, who ruled nearby Barcelona. In May 1090, the Cid defeated and captured Berenguer in the Battle of Tébar. Berenguer was later ransomed and his son Ramón Berenguer III married the Cid's youngest daughter Maria to ward against future conflicts.

Along the way to Valencia, El Cid also conquered other towns, many of which were near Valencia, like Castejón and Alucidia.

El Cid gradually came to have more influence on Valencia, then ruled by al-Qadir. In October 1092 an uprising occurred in Valencia inspired by the city's chief judge Ibn Jahhaf and the Almoravids. The Cid began a siege of Valencia. A December 1093 attempt to break failed. By the time the siege ended in May 1094 the Cid had carved out his own principality on the coast of the Mediterranean. Officially the Cid ruled in the name of Alfonso; in reality, the Cid was fully independent. The city was both Christian and Muslim, and both Moors and Christians served in the army and as administrators. In 1096 Valencia's nine mosques were converted into churches; Jérôme, a French bishop, was appointed archbishop of the city.

El Cid died afterwards in 1099. His wife, Jimena ruled in his place for three years until the Almoravids besieged the city. Unable to hold it, she abandoned the city. Alfonso ordered the city burned to prevent it from falling into the hands of the Almoravids. Valencia was captured by Masdali on May 5, 1102 and would not become a Christian city again for over 125 years. Jimena fled to Burgos with her husband's body. Originally buried in Castile in the monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña, his body now lies at the center of the Burgos Cathedral.

Babieca or Bavieca was El Cid's warhorse. Several stories exist about the Cid and Babieca. One well-known legend about the Cid describes how he acquired the white stallion. According to this story, Rodrigo's godfather, Pedro El Grande, was a monk at a Carthusian monastery. Pedro's coming-of-age gift to El Cid was his pick of a horse from an Andalusian herd. El Cid picked a horse that his godfather thought was a weak, poor choice, causing the monk to exclaim "Babieca!" (stupid!) Hence, it became the name of El Cid's horse. Another legend states that in a competition of battle to become King Sancho's "Campeador", or champion, a knight on horseback wished to challenge the Cid. The King wished a fair fight and gave the Cid his finest horse, Babieca, or Bavieca. This version says Babieca was raised in the royal stables of Seville and was a highly trained and loyal war horse, not a foolish stallion. The name in this instance could suggest that the horse came from the Babia region in León, Spain. In the poem Carmen Campidoctoris, Babieca appears as a gift from "a barbarian" to the Cid, so its name could also be derived from "Barbieca", or "horse of the barbarian".

In either case, Babieca became a great warhorse, famous to the Christians, feared by El Cid's enemies, and loved by the Cid, who allegedly requested that Babieca be buried with him in the monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña[citation needed]. His name is mentioned in several tales and historical documents about El Cid, including "Cantar de mio Cid" ("The Lay of the Cid").

A weapon traditionally identified as El Cid's sword, Tizona, can still be seen in the Army Museum (Museo del Ejército) in Madrid. In 1999, a small sample of the blade underwent metallurgical analysis which confirmed that the blade was made in Moorish Córdoba in the eleventh century and contained amounts of Damascus steel[citation needed].

In 2007 the Autonomous Community of Castile and León bought the sword for 1.6 million Euros, and it is currently on display at the Museum of Burgos.

Starting in the 12th century the legend of El Cid has been perpetuated in chronicles and ballads. Until the 14th century his life was told in the form of epic poems, each time with more attention to his youth imagined with much creative liberty, as can be observed in the late Mocedades de Rodrigo, in which are mentioned how in his youth he ventures to invade France, so eclipsing the exploits of the French chansons de geste. The new compositions presented a conceited nature much to the liking of the times but were contradictory to the moderate and prudent style of Cantar de mio Cid.

His youth and his love of Jimena were also subjects in the Spanish Romanceros. These anonymous short poems were based upon the epic poetry, which preserved the memory of El Cid in the late Middle Ages and created new literary episodes on the topic. The feats of El Cid are one of the many sources for Don Quixote's early inspiration: though his steed Rocinante is less than capable, Don Quixote believes him to be better than Babieca.

Many works have been written about El Cid. The oldest of the preserved manuscripts is the three-part Castilian cantar de gesta Cantar de Mio Cid, also called The Lay of the Cid, The Song of My Cid, or Poema de Mio Cid. It keeps a realistic tone while not exactly following the historical truth.

The exploits of El Cid are the topic of the Carmen Campidoctoris, a Latin text that predates the Cantar de Mio Cid. Here we find the only description about the shield of the Cid. According to the poem, it has a "fierce shining golden dragon" depicted on it.

The French playwright Pierre Corneille wrote the tragicomedy Le Cid in 1636, based on the play of Guillén de Castro, Las Mocedades del Cid. Jules Massenet's 1885 opera Le Cid was based on Corneille's play. It is a favorite of Plácido Domingo, who has sung the role of Rodrigue (Rodrigo) many times since first performing it at Carnegie Hall in 1976.

The English poet Robert Southey wrote "The Chronicle of the Cid" in English. This work, written in 1808, is a translated blend of three Spanish sources: Chronica del famoso cavallero Cid Ruydiez Campeador, Poema del Cid, and Romances del Cid. El Cid is mentioned in Canto III of The Cantos of Ezra Pound: as he arrives at Burgos Cathedral and later, alluding to his capture of Valencia.

Guy Gavriel Kay's "The Lions of Al-Rassan" is a fairly recent work of speculative fiction loosely based on Rodrigo.

There have been modern-day films about El Cid, such as El Cid (1961, starring Charlton Heston and Sophia Loren) and the animated El Cid: La Leyenda (2003). In the early 1980s there was an animated series called Ruy, el Pequeño Cid (Little Cid no Boken), portraying the fictional adventures of El Cid as a child.

Computer games set in medieval Europe sometimes feature El Cid. Age of Empires II: The Conquerors Expansion featured a six-level campaign based on the exploits of El Cid, including his exile from Castile, his conquest of Valencia and his legendary posthumous battle. He also appears as a warrior in the Anachronism card game and as the rebel leader of Valencia in Medieval: Total War and Medieval II. In the latter case, his appearance is also an in-joke homage to Sid Meier, creator of the Civilization series. Also in the game Crusader Kings, he appears as Rodrigo de Vivar at the court of King Sancho II of Castile. Most instalments of the Final Fantasy series also feature a character named Cid, as well as some having swords named after El Cid directly. Final Fantasy XII specifically has a character named El Cid Margrace, along with the traditional Cid. The bard in the original Bard's Tale was named El Cid.

The El Cid Statue overlooks the Plaza de Panama, facing south toward the Spreckels Organ Pavilion in Balboa Park, San Diego, California. This 23-ft (7-m) tall bronze equestrian sculpture was dedicated in 1930 as a symbolic guardian of Balboa Park. Three other statues were made from the same mold — one stands in the court of the Museum of the Hispanic Society in New York City; anothes stands on Plaza de España, Valencia (Spain), near the oldest known church in the city- San Vicent de la Roqueta; the other is in Seville, Spain. The statue is attributed to Anna Hyatt Huntington and dated 1927.

Cid Harbour, in the Whitsunday Islands, on Australia's Great Barrier Reef was named in his honour. It is overlooked by Bavieca Hill.

Isabel Allende made El Cid one of the ancestors of the De La Vega family and thus a direct ancestor to El Zorro in her novel Zorro. This revelation explains a reference in Johnston McCulley's original story that Diego Vega had 'the highest blood' among the Californios.

Julio A. Garcia, a prominent attorney in Laredo, Texas, was referred to as "El Cid" because of his grassroots political activities.

Abderraman I

Abd Ar-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (en árabe, عبدالرحمن بن معاوية بن هشام بن عبد الملك), conocido como Abderramán I o Abd al-Rahmán I al-Dājil (الداخل: el que entra o el Inmigrado) (Damasco, marzo de 731 - Córdoba, 788) fue un príncipe de la dinastía omeya que tras diversos azares se convirtió en el primer emir independiente de Córdoba en 756.

La situación interna del Emirato no permitió a Abderramán I dirigir las habituales aceifas a los territorios cristianos del norte. Su reinado de treinta y dos años transcurrió entre luchas internas para sofocar la resistencia del anterior emir, Yusuf al-Fihrí, y de sus hijos, de los sirios partidarios de los abbasíes y de los bereberes asentados en la Península.

Nieto de Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, el décimo califa omeya, e hijo del príncipe Mu'awiya y una concubina berebere de la tribu Nafza,Abderramán nació en un monasterio del entorno de Damasco. Cuando el califa Marwan II fue derrotado y muerto en el año 750 en Egipto y se instauró la nueva dinastía de los abbasíes, el joven omeya tenía menos de veinte años. Fue uno de los escasos miembros de la dinastía que consiguieron escapar a la matanza de Abú Futrus.

Junto con su hermano Yahya se refugió junto con tribus beduinas en el desierto. Los abasidas persiguieron a sus enemigos sin piedad; los soldados mataron a su hermano, y él se salvó huyendo primero a Palestina y Siria y después al norte de África, el refugio común para aquellos que querían escapar de los abasidas.

En la confusión general producida por el cambio de dinastía, África había caído en manos de caciques locales, antiguos emires o tenientes de los califas omeyas, que ahora buscaban independencia. Después de un tiempo Abderramán descubrió que su vida estaba amenazada y huyó aún más lejos hacia el oeste, refugiándose entre las tribus bereberes de Mauritania (en la tribu de los Nafza a la que pertenecía su madre). En medio de estos peligros mantuvo sus ánimos gracias a su confianza en una profecía de su tío abuelo Maslama, según la cual él restablecería la fortuna de su familia. Fue seguido por algunos partidarios de los omeyas.

El joven Abderramán, acompañado por su leal vasallo Badr, y después de atravesar todo el norte de África, llegó a Ceuta en 755, y desde allí envió un agente a la Península Ibérica para buscar los apoyos de otros clientes de la familia, descendientes de los conquistadores de la Península Ibérica, que eran numerosos en la provincia de Elvira, actualmente Granada. El país estaba en un estado de confusión debido al débil liderazgo del Emir Yusef, una simple marioneta en manos de una facción, y estaba dividido por las tensiones tribales entre árabes y los conflictos raciales entre éstos y los bereberes. Esto dio a Abderramán la oportunidad que no había encontrado en África. Bajo invitación de sus partidarios llegó a Bitruh Riyäna (Playa Burriana) en Nerja, al este de Málaga, en septiembre de 755. En el Castillo de Turrush, Algarinejo (Granada),y apoyado por los mozárabes de la fortaleza, reclutó un pequeño ejército con el cual asaltar posteriormente el poder.

Durante un tiempo Abderramán se dejó guiar por sus seguidores, que eran conscientes de los riesgos de su empresa. Yusef comenzó negociaciones, y ofreció a Abderramán una de sus hijas en matrimonio y tierras. Esto era mucho menos de lo que el príncipe esperaba conseguir, pero probablemente se habría visto forzado a aceptar la oferta si la insolencia de uno de los mensajeros de Yusef, uno de los antiguos habitantes de la Península Ibérica, no hubiera ultrajado a uno de los jefes leales a la causa omeya, llamado Obeidullah, mofándose de su incapacidad de escribir bien en árabe. A causa de esta provocación Obeidullah sacó su espada.

Durante 756 Abderramán apoyado por tropas sirias, yemeníes y bereberes luchó una campaña en el valle del Guadalquivir, que terminó el 16 de mayo, con la derrota de Yusef fuera de Córdoba. Las tropas de Abderramán eran muy débiles ya que él era casi el único que montaba un buen caballo de guerra; no tenía bandera, y se improvisó una con un turbante verde y una lanza. El turbante y la lanza se convirtieron en la bandera de los omeyas españoles. Se proclamó emir independiente de Al-Ándalus en Archidona y los abasidas de Bagdad perdieron este territorio. Poco después Abderramán entró triunfante en Córdoba con su espléndido caballo blanco, el día del 'Aid al-Kabir (commemoración del sacrificio de Abraham). Inmediatamente después liberó de la esclavitud a una visigoda conversa al Islam a la que desposó. Ella fue la madre de Hisham I.yy

El largo reinado de 32 años transcurrió en una lucha para traer a sus anárquicos árabes y bereberes al orden. Nunca habían pretendido tener un maestro, y se resistieron a su mandato, que se fue haciendo cada vez más duro. En 759 aplastó una rebelión encabezada por el antiguo emir, que acabó con la ejecución de éste. En 763 tuvo que luchar en las mismas puertas de su capital con rebeldes que actuaban por cuenta de los abasidas venciéndoles, como señal de victoria cortó las cabezas de los líderes rivales, las llenó con sal y alcanfor y las envió como desafío al califa del este.

También hizo frente a los reinos cristianos, primero exigiendo tributo al Reino Astúr-leonés, que se tuvo que ver obligado a pagar por el potencial omeya, y luego manteniendo la marca norte de la península al conquistar Zaragoza luchando contra los francos de Carlomagno. La retirada de los francos provocó el ataque de los vascones en Roncesvalles. Siempre tuvo un gran ejército, compuesto en su mayoría de bereberes.

Su territorio estuvo muy bien organizado gracias a la eficacia de su ministros, gobernadores en las siete provincias del emirato, caldíes, jueces de las ciudades y el consejo coránico, que procuraba la integración de las diferentes etnias bajo las leyes de Mahoma, como los muladíes (cristianos conversos), mozárabes (cristianos que pagaban tributo extra por permanecer en territorio musulmán) y los judíos, plenamente integrados. Además siempre tuvo 4 ó 5 asesores que le aconsejaban en cada decisión difícil.Entre dichos asesores se encontraba su antiguo vasallo Badr, al que nombró jefe del ejército, y con el que guardaba una cierta amistad.

Ordenó que no se rezase jamás por los abasidas de Bagdad. Fue proclamado príncipe de los creyentes. En las monedas no se hacía ninguna mención a Bagdad y tan solo reflejaban el año en curso y el nombre de Al-Ándalus. Fomentó los cultivos e introdujo la palmera en la península Ibérica. Según la tradición todas las palmeras de España descienden de una palmera que plantó Abderramán I con sus propias manos en el jardín de su palacio de Córdoba.

En 785 decidió aprovecharse el material de una basílica visigoda dedicada a San Vicente para iniciar la construcción de la mezquita de Córdoba, que quedaría para la posteridad como símbolo del esplendor de la España musulmana.

Tuvo tres hijos legítimos que pretendían sucederle, Suleimán, Hisham y Almondzir. Abderramán tomó la decisión de elegir él el sucesor siguiendo una antigua traición oriental. Escogió a Hisham, por ser el más parecido a él tanto en carácter como físicamente, dejándole un legado inmenso.

Nunca llegó a perder ninguna batalla ante ninguno de sus enemigos y en sus últimos años, Abderramán tuvo que lidiar con una sucesión de conspiraciones de palacio, que reprimió enérgicamente. A pesar de ello, fundó la dinastía que aseguró el control omeya de España hasta 1031.

Es posible que después de sofocada la rebelión de los moriscos en el siglo XVI fueran a establecerse en la región de Valencia parte de los descendientes Omeyas que quedaron y hubieran sido obligados a cristianizarse o a salir deportados desde el puerto de Alicante en 1609.