Sunday, October 23, 2011

Snow Cake...





Escrito por Silvia I. Quirós Alvear


Como todas las historias maravillosas y sorprendentes suceden por casualidad, ‘Snow Cake’, producida en 2006, no iba a ser menos. Dirigida por Marc Evans y cuyo guión ha sido escrito por Angela Pell, narra la historia del sentimiento de deber que posee Alex (Alan Rickman) para con Linda (Sigourney Weaver), debido al accidente en el coche de él que hace que la hija de ella, Vivienne Freeman (Emily Hampshire), fallezca en el acto. Alex descubrirá, de forma inesperada, qué es el autismo y cómo convivir con el mismo junto a Linda durante, solamente, unos meses. Pero que serán suficientes, en cambio, para conseguir una visión diferente de su vida y reflexionar acerca de todo lo que tiene a su alrededor. Le ayudará en todo ello su aventura romántica con Maggie (Carrie-Anne Moss), la atractiva vecina de Linda que le guiará en su relación con ésta, y sus continuas disputas por temas de celos con agente Clyde (James Allodi), quién comenzará a investigar su pasado para hostigarle.

Una historia con un argumento bastante cercano a la realidad, lo que nos hace quizá sentirnos identificados y llegar a interiorizar los propios sentimientos de los personajes. Es, por un lado, triste por las pérdidas sufridas en ocasiones, pero por otro lado, expresa una simpatía inusual. Es ternura lo que emite Alex al llegar a casa de Linda y darle a ésta los regalos que Vivienne había comprado antes de morir: bolitas de luz y sonido, sabiendo que a su madre le atraían enormemente. Obviamente, Linda no le da la más mínima importancia al extraño que acaba de aparecer en su casa, y aunque considero que es un personaje adulto muy bien caracterizado como una persona con un Trastorno Generalizado del Desarrollo (aunque en mi opinión han querido establecer un Autismo que hoy en día se conoce como ‘De alto funcionamiento’ ), hay ciertas cosas que aún hoy en día se deberían corregir en los medios de comunicación que trasmiten este tipo de información al mundo. Considero que, aunque se trate de dar una visión diferente de las personas con Trastorno del Espectro del Autismo, a veces se tiende a tropezar en la misma piedra varias veces, siendo éstas estereotipos típicos marcados del trastorno en la sociedad, por lo que se acaba volviendo a los mismos fallos en el que habíamos comenzado a cambiar.

En ‘Snow Cake’, por ejemplo, uno de los aspectos que más me decepcionó fue la mirada tan poco comunicativa de Linda, sobre todo la primera vez que aparece en pantalla en esta película. Lleva en su cara una mirada perdida, tanto que debería decir que sin haber leído argumento alguno antes de ver el largometraje creí que era ciega… Las personas con TGD poseen un déficit en este sentido, pero ¿es necesario exagerarlo hasta tal punto? Y una vez más, volvemos al eterno debate, ya que cada persona con TEA es un mundo y no todas las personas que poseen dicho trastorno tienen el mismo grado de dificultad en este sentido. No creo que sea comparable una falta de visión parcial o total con una persona con TGD, ni mucho menos. Ellos pueden ver, pueden trasmitir sentimiento a través de sus ojos, pueden mirar, pueden dirigir la atención con su mirada, etc. Distinto es cómo lo hacen, efectivamente, y aunque su capacidad esté mermada, la tienen y la utilizan al igual que lo hacemos todos los seres humanos.

También me ha llamado la atención profundamente la poca sensibilidad que le atribuyen al personaje. Se ha muerto su hija, pero a ella parece como si no le hubiera afectado en absoluto… Al menos es lo que personalmente me hace entender en las situaciones que se van viendo avanzar. Creo que Alex, debido a la anterior muerte de su hijo, llega a los brazos de Linda en búsqueda de comprensión y entendimiento, ya que ambos han pasado por lo mismo. En vez de eso, le hacen chocar y encontrarse con un personaje totalmente estático, de hielo, frío… Una vez más, estamos de acuerdo en que a las personas con autismo se les hace mucho más complicado la comprensión del mundo en general, y en este caso, la muerte en concreto, pero ¿hasta que punto pintan a Linda como una persona a quien la noticia de la muerte de su propia hija, que estaba al cuidado de sus abuelos, pasa completamente desapercibida? Por último, creo que existe una amplia confusión entre la necesidad de una rutina en el propio TEA y el Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo (TOC).

Aunque es cierto que existe la posibilidad de que ambos se den de forma comórbida, no sé si en la película han querido introducir ambos o es que no han sabido mantener el límite entre uno y otro. Desde mi punto de vista, hay ciertos comportamientos de Linda que no caben dentro de una conducta inflexible, cerrada al cambio, que es lo que se daría en una persona con TGD o TEA; sino que traspasan la línea, llegando a formar parte de conductas completamente obsesivas, como por ejemplo, no poder soportar que se esté dentro de la casa con la ropa mojada o tener que realizar, de forma exhaustiva, una revisión de la cocina cada día. Se entremezcla además con ciertas fobias, como es el hecho de que alguien tiene que tirar la basura en su casa, siempre los martes, y se asegura, siendo superior a sus fuerzas que no ocurra de tal forma, que ese día no pase de largo.

No es que sea ‘malo’ hacer que dichos trastornos o conductas disruptivas coincidan, pero creo que un público normal no sería capaz de distinguir tan nimios detalles para ellos, siendo en cambio importante para aquellos que conviven con una persona con TEA que no sea constante esa referencia caótica y poco ajustada a la realidad, sin explicación alguna.

A pesar de contener ciertos elementos con los que no consigo estar del todo de acuerdo, también es de agradecer que se intente dar una visión global de PERSONA y no de AUTISTA, o al menos no solamente. En ‘Snow Cake’ están muy trabajados ambos conceptos, ya que Linda es tratada, ante todo, como un personaje más en la película, no como EL personaje especial. Linda es una mujer con autismo, sí, pero que además tiene un trabajo en un supermercado del barrio porque es buena en ello, ya que le gusta mantener los estantes ordenados y además lo hace de forma eficiente y eficaz. Y no solo eso, sino que conocemos algunas de sus habilidades y especialidades como es el juego del Scrabble1, ya que uno de sus puntos fuertes es la buena memoria para el vocabulario y el lenguaje.

Y lo conocemos no como un ‘poder mágico’, que es lo que muchas veces se tiende a buscar en las personas con un Síndrome de Asperger, pero sí lo hacemos en un entorno de diversión, mientras juega con Alex en casa, una noche cualquiera después de cenar y tal y como lo harían muchas personas. Gracias a su amor por todo lo que tiene que ver con la nieve nace el título de la película, ya que siente auténtica pasión por todo lo relacionado con el tema. Cuando ve caer los primeros copos de nieve en el jardín de su casa, sale a la calle estrepitosamente y se revuelca por el suelo como si de un niño se tratara, para después, como no era menos de esperar, hacer un muñeco de nieve totalmente real.

También es capaz de recrearlos con papel y tijeras los cuáles les encanta tirar, posteriormente, todos juntos por el aire simulando que vuelve a nevar, una y otra vez.

Obviamente como persona con un TGD hay ciertas características que la hacen distinta, que no mejor ni peor, al resto y aunque, en este caso específico, todas ellas son bastante conocidas por la sociedad en general cuando se hace referencia a este trastorno. Por un lado, podemos mencionar la referencia a la falta de una ‘teoría de la mente’, que en este caso es muy notable, y protagoniza ciertas escenas de comedia. La teoría de la mente es la capacidad que adquirimos desde bien pequeños, entre los 3 y los 5 años aproximadamente, para entender que tanto nosotros como el resto de las personas que nos rodean tenemos unos sentimientos y pensamientos propios que son, a la vez, individuales y sociales. Este aspecto va muy relacionado, no solo con su falta de compresión ante temáticas como la broma o la ironía, sino también con el entendimiento de todos y cada uno de los gestos sociales que son comunes y entendibles, normalmente. Unido a lo anterior, y aunque sea duro de caracterizar y enseñar al mundo, es cierto que debido a su falta de adaptación al entorno puramente social, a veces, las personas con autismo, es posible que hagan daño, por supuesto que de forma no intencionada, a personas que quieren o aprecian.

Pero nosotros tenemos que ser lo suficientemente listos como para comprender que el amor hacia esas personas se expresa en muchas otras ocasiones, aunque de nuevo sea de una manera completamente distinta a cómo estamos acostumbrados. Y, además, ¿quién no ha hecho daño, aunque sea sin quererlo, a una persona que quería mucho, muchísimo? Por último, hay una cosa más que me gustaría comentar acerca de Linda y es en relación con su sinceridad. Quienes conocemos el mundo de las personas con TGD o TEA, sabemos reconocer en ellos ‘verdaderos amigos’ porque jamás serían capaces de mentir. Y bien queda reflejado todo lo comentado anteriormente en una cita de Alex, cuando le dice a Linda: ‘Eres la única persona que he conocido en el mundo entero a quién no tengo que darle justificaciones o explicaciones de mí mismo’.

Y, al final, siempre acabo en la misma conclusión, y es que: todas las personas tenemos una discapacidad, pero algunos en grados más acusados que otros, por eso se nos hace más evidente en ellos que en nosotros. En el fondo, y lo creo de corazón, todos tenemos en nuestra personalidad algunos rasgos de TGD o TEA y a mí, personalmente, me fascina y me encanta. Porque es lo que me ayuda, en mi día a día, a tratar con ellos. Es lo que me permite acercarme y entenderles. Es lo que me anima a seguir descubriéndoles y descubriéndome. Me gusta buscar cosas en común, me gusta ver que en realidad somos más parecidos que diferentes. Y es una pena que los demás no lo puedan ver como yo porque, en verdad, se pierden un mundo maravilloso. Unas personas tan increíbles, o más, como pocas existen hoy en día.

Para finalizar, sin tratar de desviarme mucho del tema con el que habíamos comenzado, en mi opinión, creo que hubiera sido bastante más enriquecedora una ‘Snow Cake’ en la que la propia Linda o incluso Vivienne, que fallece en las primeras escenas, nos narraran, aunque lo hacen maravillosamente solo con las acciones, a las que muchas veces no hace falta ponerle ni palabras, cómo es una vida con el trastorno o en convivencia con él, respectivamente. A veces, de las acciones las personas pueden obtener sus propios pensamientos, sus propios esquemas e ideas erróneas acerca de en qué consiste el trastorno o cómo son estas personas.

Considero que, en una película en la que queremos que el espectador imagine el final que más le guste, dejándolo abierto al público, siempre está bien ayudar a que la mente del mismo vuele; pero, en cambio, en estos casos, creo que lo más apropiado es acotar los significados y definiciones de cada uno de los universos que introducimos, porque a veces la imaginación del ser humano es tan retorcida, tan amplia, tan extraña… Quizá, lo que más me ha gustado de la película, es que se entiende perfectamente la diferencia entre aquellas personas que comprenden y sienten el diagnóstico, como algo más en sus vidas, y aquellas personas que realmente sienten vergüenza de ese trastorno.

Los primeros, capaces de respetar, a diferencia de los segundos que tomarían la opción de prohibir sobre todo aquellas conductas más llamativas, normalmente los movimientos estereotipados, en contextos sociales en los que, respectivamente, unos creen que se producen de forma necesaria y los otros, simplemente, consideran que están fuera de lugar. Las normas sociales están consensuadas en comunidad, así que sería un paso más adaptarlas a todos los ciudadanos actuales.

Cuando conocemos a una persona con autismo por la que sentimos aprecio o amor intentamos, al igual que haríamos con cualquier otro, hacer que se sienta lo mejor posible aunque quizá tengamos que hacer cosas que ni nosotros mismos esperaríamos de nuestra propia persona, pero ¿a qué al final merecen la pena?

Trailer de la Pelicula:

LIFEisGAME: Un proyecto para ayudar al reconocimiento de emociones faciales






Escrito por Autismo Diario


Uno de los problemas de las personas con autismo es precisamente el del reconocimiento de las emociones faciales. Esta problemática está directamente ligada con las habilidades en la comunicación social y la empatía. Basados en esta problemática la Universidad de Oporto (Portugal), la Universidad de Texas (EE.UU.) con el apoyo del Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Microsoft y tres consultores de la Universidad de Stanford, la Universidad de Barcelona y la Universidad de Zaragoza, en un esfuerzo colaborativo y con un presupuesto de cerca de 2 millones de dólares han desarrollado un proyecto llamado LIFEisGAME.

Este proyecto pretende usar personajes virtuales para usarlos en programas de formación interactiva para ayudar a las personas con Trastornos del Espectro del Autismo a mejorar su capacidades en el reconocimiento de la emociones faciales. Para ello se ha desarrollado un juego (todavía en fase de desarrollo) destinado a tal fin. Usando modelos digitales en 3D y con un sistema de uso adaptado a las personas con TEA, el juego ayuda a la comprensión y detección de la expresiones faciales. A través de una pantalla táctil, el niño con el uso de sus dedos puede modificar las expresiones de los personajes del juego. Estos personajes tienen una gran expresión facial para ser más fácil interactuar con ellos.

El sistema es muy fácil y divertido de usar para el niño, a su vez puede realizar modificaciones con un solo toque de su dedo sobre la pantalla. De esta forma el niño manipula de forma consciente las diferentes emociones, aprendiendo durante el proceso a reconocerlas posteriormente. En la fase actual de desarrollo ya ha sido probado por 9 niños entre 5 y 12 años de edad. Seis de los cuales tenían Autismo de Alto Funcionamiento o Síndrome de Asperger y buena comunicación verbal, dos de ellos tenían un bajo nivel de comunicación y uno de ellos un grado severo de autismo y muchas dificultades en la comunicación. Los nueve niños jugaron durante todo el tiempo que quisieron siendo los primeros en valorar la calidad, usabilidad y calidad del sistema. A consecuencia de esa primera prueba real, los investigadores están llevando a cabo diversas mejoras y cambios. Esperemos que en breve este sistema esté a disposición de todos.

Sin duda un interesante trabajo basado en las nuevas técnicas de reconocimiento fácil y realidad virtual, un nuevo modo del uso de la tecnología en la ayuda de las personas con necesidades especiales.


Más información en la web oficial del proyecto:

http://www.portointeractivecenter.org/lifeisgame/

El riesgo de un segundo hermano con autismo es mayor de lo que se creía





Escrito por José Ramón Alonso


Una decisión difícil para una pareja que ha tenido un niño con autismo es la de tener o no más hijos. Por un lado, se sabe que existe un mayor riesgo de tener otro hijo con autismo que en la población normal. Por otro lado, la posibilidad de que un segundo hijo tenga un desarrollo normal es mayor que la de que tenga autismo. En la actualidad disponemos de datos más actuales y mejor contrastados sobre cuánto es este aumento de riesgo.

Un estudio multicéntrico internacional de Sally Ozonoff de la Universidad de California, Davis, apoyado por la asociación Autism Speaks, tras analizar 664 familias donde al menos hay un niño con autismo y han tenido otro hijo, ha llegado a la conclusión de que un nuevo hermano tiene un 18,7% de probabilidad de desarrollar un trastorno del espectro autista (40,9% recibieron un diagnóstico de autismo y 59,1 de trastorno generalizado del desarrollo, no especificado). Ello aumenta las cifras de estudios anteriores en los que el riesgo se estimaba entre un 3 y un 10%. Se ha publicado en la revista Pediatrics (DOI: 10.1542/peds.2010-2825).

Como en otros casos donde se habla de la prevalencia de casos de autismo, este aumento se atribuye a un mejor diagnóstico de los TEA, una mayor amplitud de los criterios que hace que se incluyan más casos y a una eliminación de fuentes de error de los estudios previos. Como datos predictores del segundo caso de TEA se incluye tener más de un hermano mayor con autismo (en cuyo caso el riesgo era más del doble 32,2% frente a un solo hermano afectado 13.5% ) y que el bebé sea niño (el riesgo era casi el triple frente a un bebé niña; es decir el riesgo de que desarrolle un TEA un recién nacido niño es de 25.9% frente a un 9.6% si es niña). Todos los estudios sobre la concordancia entre hermanos (más de un hijo con autismo) pueden infravalorar la proporción de la recurrencia debido a una natural tendencia a dejar de tener niños después del nacimiento de un niño con autismo.

Sin embargo, la consistencia con que los padres aplican esta regla de parada es difícil de estimar. Por otro lado, los padres que han tenido un hijo con TEA, pueden prestar mayor atención al desarrollo del nuevo bebé, lo que puede incrementar la probabilidad tanto de positivos correctos como de falsos positivos. El nuevo estudio ha buscado técnicas epidemiológicas que permitan la mayor representatividad de las familias afectadas y una evaluación directa por un experto con los mismos criterios para complementar las observaciones de los padres. Por tanto, los datos parecen los más fiables de que disponemos en estos momentos.

Por último, es importante informar a las parejas de que estos datos se basan en medias de grupos. No es posible, todavía, dar un consejo genético individualizado. Pero el seguimiento genético de las familias afectadas incluidas en este estudio, nos permitirá probablemente determinar en un futuro próximo, perfiles genéticos específicos que aumenten o disminuyan ese riesgo medio de que desarrolle un TEA nuestro futuro hijo.

Para leer más:
Ozonoff S, Young GS, Carter A, Messinger D, Yirmiya N, Zwaigenbaum L, Bryson S, Carver LJ, Constantino JN, Dobkins K, Hutman T, Iverson JM, Landa R, Rogers SJ, Sigman M, Stone WL. (2011) Recurrence Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium Study. Pediatrics 128(3): e488-e495.

¿qué nos pediría un autista?





Por Angel Rivière, madrid 1996

Ayúdame a comprender. Organiza mi mundo y facilítame que anticipe lo que va a suceder. Dame orden, estructura, y no caos.

No te angusties conmigo, porque me angustio. Respeta mi ritmo. Siempre podrás relacionarte conmigo si comprendes mis necesidades y mi modo especial de entender la realidad.

No te deprimas, lo normal es que avance y me desarrolle cada vez más.

No me hables demasiado, ni demasiado deprisa. Las palabras son "aire" que no pesa para tí, pero pueden ser una carga muy pesada para mí. Muchas veces no son la mejor manera de relacionarte conmigo.

Como otros niños, como otros adultos, necesito compartir el placer y me gusta hacer las cosas bien, aunque no siempre lo consiga.

Hazme saber, de algún modo, cúando he hecho las cosas bien y ayúdame a hacerlas sin fallos. Cuando tengo demasiados fallos me sucede lo que a tí: me irrito y termino por negarme a hacer las cosas.

Necesito más orden del que tú necesitas, más predictibilidad en el medio que la que tú requieres. Tenemos que negociar mis rituales para convivir.

Me resulta difícil comprender el sentido de muchas de las cosas que me piden que haga. Ayúdame a entenderlo. Trata de pedirme cosas que puedan tener un sentido concreto y descifrable para mí. No permitas que me aburra o permanezca inactivo.

No me invadas excesivamente. A veces, las personas sois demasiado imprevisibles, demasiado ruidosas, demasiado estimulantes.

Respeta las distancias que necesito, pero sin dejarme solo.

Lo que hago no es contra tí. Cuando tengo una rabieta o, cuando me es difícil atender o hacer lo que me pides, no estoy tratando de hacerte daño. ¿Ya que tengo un problema de intenciones, no me atribuyas malas intenciones!

Mi desarrollo no es absurdo, aunque no sea fácil de entender. Tiene su propia lógica y muchas de las conductas que llamais "alteradas" son formas de enfrentar el mundo desde desde mi especial forma de ser y percibir. Haz un esfuerzo por comprenderme.

Las otras personas sois demasiado complicadas. Mi mundo no es complejo y cerrado, sino simple. Aunque te parezca extraño lo que te digo, mi mundo es tan abierto, tan sin tapujos ni mentiras, tan ingenuamente expuesto a los demás, que resulta difícil penetrar en él. No vivo en una "fortaleza vacía", sino en una llanura tan abierta que puede parecer inaccesible. Tengo mucha menos complicación que las personas que os consideráis normales.

No me pidas siempre las mismas cosas ni me exijas las mismas rutinas. No tienes que hacerte tú autista para ayudarme. El autista soy yo, no tú!

No sólo soy autista. También soy un niño, un adolescente, o un adulto. Comparto muchas cosas de los niños, adolescentes o adultos a los que llamáis "normales". Me gusta jugar y divertirme, quiero a mis padres y a las personas cercanas, me siento satisfecho cuando hago las cosas bien. Es más lo que compartimos que lo que nos separa.

Merece la pena vivir conmigo. Puedo darte tantas satisfacciones como otras personas, aunque no sean las mismas. Puede llegar un momento en tu vida en que yo, que soy autista, sea tu mayor y mejor compañía.

No me agredas químicamente. Si te han dicho que tengo que tomar una medicación, procura que sea revisada periódicamente por el especialista.

Ni mis padres ni yo tenemos la culpa de lo que me pasa. Tampoco la tienen los profesionales que me ayudan. No sirve de nada que os culpéis unos a otros. A veces, mis reacciones y conductas pueden ser difíciles de comprender o afrontar, pero no es por culpa de nadie.

La idea de "culpa" no produce más que sufrimiento en relación con mi problema.No me pidas constantemente cosas por encima de lo que soy capaz de hacer. Pero pídeme lo que puedo hacer. Dame ayuda para ser más autónomo, para comprender mejor, pero no me des ayuda de más.

No tienes que cambiar completamente tu vida por el hecho de vivir con una persona autista. A mí no me sirve de nada que tú estés mal, que te encierres y te deprimas. Necesito estabilidad y bienestar emocional a mi alrededor para estar mejor. Piensa que tu pareja tampoco tiene culpa de lo que me pasa.

Ayúdame con naturalidad, sin convertirlo en una obsesión. Para poder ayudarme, tienes que tener tus momentos en que reposas o te dedicas a tus propias actividades. Acércate a mí, no te vayas, pero no te sientas como sometido a un peso insoportable. En mi vida, he tenido momentos malos, pero puedo estar cada vez mejor.

Acéptame como soy. No condiciones tu aceptación a que deje de ser autista. Sé optimista sin hacerte "novelas". Mi situación normalmente mejora, aunque por ahora no tenga curación.

Aunque me sea difícil comunicarme o no comprenda las sutilezas sociales, tengo incluso algunas ventajas en comparación con los que os decís "normales". Me cuesta comunicarme, pero no suelo engañar. No comprendo las sutilezas sociales, pero tampoco participo de las dobles intenciones o los sentimientos peligrosos tan frecuentes en la vida social. Mi vida puede ser satisfactoria si es simple, ordenada y tranquila. Si no se me pide constantemente y sólo áquello que más me cuesta. Ser autista es un modo de ser, aunque no sea el normal.

Mi vida como autista puede ser tan feliz y satisfactoria como la tuya "normal". En esas vidas, podemos llegar a encontrarnos y compartir muchas experiencias.

Autismo en la red: Convivimos y compartimos




Escrito por Anabel Cornago

Acabo de volver de Valencia tras participar en la Jornada “Autismo en la red: convivimos y compartimos”, organizada por ASPAU el sábado 15 de octubre, con la enorme satisfacción de haber podido escuchar no sólo la voz de las familias que conviven a diario con el autismo y comparten su labor en Internet, sino también por haber podido por fin encontrarme con muchísimas personas a las que admiro desde hace varios años por su entrega, su optimismo o su tesón en la defensa de los derechos de todas las personas con Trastornos del Espectro del Autismo (TEA).

No sólo las familias, sino también las personas con autismo tienen mucho que decir. Por ello me encantaría destacar el testimonio de Marta Montoro. Escuchaba hablar a Marta y pensaba en mi hijo Erik, en todo el futuro que tiene por delante. Marta contaba su experiencia hasta llegar a la Universidad, las barreras y las metas superadas, sus inquietudes o sus necesidades… y con la piel de gallina por la emoción me invadía una mezcla de orgullo pero también de desazón por todo lo que queda por hacer.

Solemos comentar que “nuestros hijos pueden” o “unidos tenemos más fuerza” a la par de promover el conocimiento del autismo y la sensibilización para su normalización. Y esos mensajes han sido el espíritu común, junto a la visión real del autismo sin mitos contada en primera persona, de una emotiva Jornada llena de contenidos con el propósito de lograr entre todos una atención adecuada, con los recursos necesarios, así como la inclusión de las personas con TEA en una sociedad donde hay cabida para todos.

Familias, profesionales y docentes escucharon con atención sobre la importancia de una predisposición positiva por parte de las escuelas ordinarias para la inclusión, la necesidad de una formación específica del profesorado, las pautas de estimulación para nuestros hijos o los materiales más adecuados. También se indignaban cuando se expuso cómo se vulneran los derechos de las personas con autismo o asentían ante nuestra labor de seguir luchando contra los mitos todavía presentes en nuestra sociedad.

La inauguración de la Jornada corrió a cargo de Jorge Cabré Rico, conseller de Justicia y Bienestar Social, acompañado por Antonio de la Iglesia, presidente de Confederación Autismo España, Pepa Balaguer, presidenta de FEAPS CV, Jesús García, en representación del conseller de Educación, el Inspector de Educación, Formación y Empleo, y Juan Carlos Martínez, pesidente de ASPAU. Me quedo con una frase de Jesús García: “En los colegios no nos sobra ningún niño, hay sitio para todos”, con el ánimo de que no se quede sólo en palabras bonitas y que ese “sitio” esté dotado con los recursos y personal necesarios. Y es que, como diría Eva Reduello en su intervención: “¿le cabe a alguien en la cabeza que un niño acuda sin su silla de ruedas?, pues la misma importancia tiene el apoyo visual, por ejemplo, para nuestros hijos”.

Por la mañana, Inma Cardona, Rocio Sotillos y Manuel Rincón nos hablaron sobre la experiencia de Aspau en la red social. Y es que Internet se ha convertido en un punto de reunión de las familias, donde compartimos experiencia, recursos y además nos apoyamos los unos a los otros. Aprovecho este artículo para darles las gracias por esta iniciativa, por su empuje y por el cariño con el que nos recibieron a todos.
Marta Montoro y Juan Carlos Martinez mantuvieron una charla interesantísima sobre la diversidad funcional, como he comentado antes. Y, después, Cuca da Silva, Esther Cuadrado y yo presentamos el día a día con nuestros hijos, nuestras estrategias de estimulación y materiales de elaboración propia. Hablamos, ante todo, de niños felices, llenos de emociones, que para nada viven en su mundo, que se comunican con o sin lenguaje. En definitiva, de cómo son realmente, de sus logros, pero también de sus necesidades.

Eva Reduello también nos explicó de forma muy bien documentada cómo tiene que ser un colegio para niños con autismo, ya por la tarde. Se dio paso a continuación a Manuel Rincón, Miriam Reyes y a mí para presentar las acciones por un tratamiento digno del autismo, sin mitos ni usos peyorativos, que estamos emprendiendo. Por último, Esther Cuadrado, Cuca da Silva, Eva Reduello e Inma Cardona expusieron el gran trabajo que hay que seguir haciendo desde la “Plataforma España Inclusión” para que de una vez se dejen de vulnerar los derechos de las personas con TEA. Además de la intervención de Inés Casal, pionera en la creación de un blog.

Al aterrizar en Alemania, mi marido y mi hijo me esperaban en el aeropuerto, con sus abrazos, con sus sonrisas, con sus preguntas y con un ramito de flores. Tengo la familia más maravillosa del mundo, volví a pensar en ese momento. El autismo no era lo que deseábamos para nuestro hijo, pero la realidad es así y seguimos con ilusión adelante con nuestro día a día. Ahora, tras Valencia, quizás aún con más optimismo, con más fuerza, con más ganas… Porque no estamos solos y unidos seguiremos alcanzando grandes metas.

Enlaces:

http://mamideglorichi.blogspot.com/

http://mamideglorichi.blogspot.com/

http://autismoylenguaje.blogspot.com/

http://pensandoenimaxes.blogspot.com/

¿Cómo explicar al niño que tiene un Trastorno del Espectro del Autismo?



Por: Daniel Comin


Normalmente uno de los primeros trances por los que pasan los padres al recibir el diagnóstico de autismo de su hijo es el denominado proceso del duelo. El tiempo de este proceso es variable en función del carácter propio de los padres del niño. Además hay muchas formas de superar este duro trámite, desde apoyo psicológico profesional, otras familias que ya pasaron por lo mismo, etc. Pero llega un momento en que hay que superar otra fase, y es explicarle al niño que tiene Autismo o Asperger. Y esto no es fácil.

Habrán muchos factores que variaran el momento y la forma en que deberemos de informar al niño de su “diferencia”. Desde la edad, las capacidades cognitivas, el nivel de desarrollo emocional, o incluso la edad del diagnóstico. No hay dos niños iguales, y los que tienen un Trastorno del Espectro del Autismo no son una excepción. Desde un niño con Síndrome de Asperger y diagnóstico tardío a otro con un cuadro severo diagnosticado de forma temprana. A su vez la presencia o no de hermanos y si estos son mayores o menores también es una nueva incógnita en esta compleja ecuación. Este inmenso abasto del espectro nos obligará a actuar en un tiempo y forma diferente en función de cada niño.

Vamos a intentar abordar el tema, aunque quizá pequemos de cierta generalización, pero tan solo pretendemos dar una orientación de base. La familia, en base al conocimiento exacto del niño o niña y del consejo de los especialistas, deberá perfeccionar el modelo para adecuarlo de la mejor forma posible al niño y sus características. El apartado “hermanos” lo trataremos al final, como un apartado específico.

Niños y adolescentes con autismo:
Uno de los factores más importantes es el binomio edad/maduración. Es decir, podemos tener a un niño de 10 u 11 años pero con un nivel madurativo muy bajo. Que tenga una mayor afección y por tanto su modelo de comprensión será quizá como el de un niño de 5 o 6 años. Eso no significa que no se dé cuenta de que es diferente, pero habrá que abordar la explicación de forma que sea lo suficientemente comprensible para el niño. Deberemos usar todos los apoyos posibles, si su nivel de lenguaje verbal no es muy extenso, deberemos adecuarnos a su propio lenguaje, y si es necesario usar apoyos visuales, y siempre abordaremos el tema, no como algo malo, sino como algo diferente ¡Sean positivos! Expliquen sus diferencias de forma sosegada, en cualquier caso, seguro que su hijo hará más de una cosa bien, enfaticen la parte más positiva del niño, de esa forma, no fomentaremos su diferencia en el modo negativo. Es muy posible que su hijo tenga problemas para hacer sus tareas escolares, que tenga una gran adaptación curricular o que asista a un colegio de educación especial. Todos estos factores diferenciadores deben de ser tomados en cuenta. Si el niño asiste a un colegio ordinario con apoyos, lo normal es que los otros niños de su edad lo excluyan de sus juegos, ya sea por torpeza motora o sencillamente social. Quizá tenga problemas para entender los juegos, o sea malo jugando al fútbol. Pero el niño se da perfecta cuenta de esa “segregación” y en muchos casos puede fomentar el aislamiento, o el ensimismamiento a la hora del recreo. O por contra, que juegue con niños algo más pequeños, con quienes a priori se sentirá mejor, menos desplazado.

Tome el tiempo necesario, no lo sature, posiblemente le cueste procesar esa información. No se refiera nunca al autismo como una enfermedad, primero porque no lo es y segundo por las connotaciones negativas que tiene. El niño entenderá la enfermedad como algo malo y puede pensar que él mismo es algo malo.

Ante las situaciones difíciles para el niño, debe saber que tiene apoyos, que no está solo. Y que sus diferencias frente al resto solo le afectan en algunas cosas, pero no en todas.

Pueden incluso hacer lista sencillas, donde el niño vea sus fortalezas, y también algunas de sus debilidades. Si puede reconocer sus debilidades, será más fácil para él afrontarlas.

Si esto es posible, contar con el apoyo de algunos de sus compañeros puede ser algo genial. Para ello sus compañeros se supone que habrán sido informados de forma adecuada de las diferencias de su hijo, que lo vean como alguien un poco diferente, pero no por ello mejor ni peor. Es mejor fomentar entre los compañeros el modelo “hermano mayor”, de esa forma también evitaremos el acoso hacia nuestro hijo. Por otro lado, las niñas siempre van a ser mucho más receptivas a este apoyo que los niños. Si puede contar con ese apoyo “extra” será todo más fácil. Y como decíamos previamente, tome el tiempo que sea necesario, no es imprescindible que este proceso se haga de una sola vez, se puede hacer de forma progresiva.

Cuando el niño presenta un buen nivel de maduración emocional y cognitivo, se dará cuenta antes de sus diferencias. Entre los 6 y los 10 años el niño empezará a tener conciencia de su diferencia, y a medida que crezca será mayor esta sensación. Además asiste a sesiones de terapia, lenguaje, talleres sociales,…, es decir, a una serie de “clases” a las que sus compañeros no van. El no abordar el tema con el niño puede crearle estados depresivos, ansiedad, estrés e incluso adoptar posturas agresivas. Es mejor no esperar a que esto suceda. En cualquier caso, deberemos usar un modelo de explicación que sea fácil de entender. Aunque tenga un buen nivel, no hay que olvidar que ciertos aspectos siguen estando afectados. Tanto a nivel social, reglas de juegos, comprensión de algunas situaciones, etc. Y esto hará que le pueda resultar difícil comprender algunas de sus diferencias frente al grupo. No buscan realmente la recompensa, pero sí pueden buscar la atención de sus compañeros, y no siempre lo harán de la forma adecuada pudiendo crear cierto rechazo. Y ese rechazo les va a afectar, ya que no siempre comprenden bien qué hicieron mal. Abordaremos también la situación de forma sosegada, adecuando la explicación al nivel del niño. Hacer listas también puede ser una buena idea, pero siempre desde el positivismo. De esta forma, y tal y como comentábamos en el punto anterior, esto puede ayudarle a comprender sus diferencias y por tanto a mejorar. Igualmente, no hablaremos de enfermedad, no queremos que el ser consciente de su diferencia le haga pensar que es peor que los demás. Es más, deberemos de ser lo más sutiles posibles, sobre todo si el niño presenta un alto nivel de funcionamiento, no queremos causarle un shock. El niño puede empezar ha hacer preguntas del tipo “¿mamá qué es el autismo?”, ya que normalmente esa palabra es “habitual” en la conversación familiar, u otra del tipo “¿mamá, yo tengo autismo?”, o “¿si tengo autismo soy tonto?”, y un sinnúmero más de posibles preguntas que nos pueden poner en una situación complicada si no estamos preparados a responder. De hecho, cuando reciba la primera pregunta, puede responder con otra ¡Averigüe qué sabe su hijo! Si descubre lo que su hijo entiende por Autismo, quizá le ayude a cambiar el argumento o seguir en la línea de pensamiento de su hijo. “Algunas personas tienen una forma diferente de pensar”, una frase tan sencilla puede ser una forma de comenzar. Usemos ejemplos, podemos basarnos en las aficiones del niño, y seguir por un camino comprensible y familiar, además es un camino agradable para nuestro hijo. También es importante una vez que el niño empieza a comprender su diversidad, hacerle saber que en realidad no es tan diferente, ya que hay muchas persona más como él.

Niños y adolescentes con Síndrome de Asperger:
Aunque cada día se diagnostica antes, el Síndrome de Asperger suele tener un diagnóstico tardío. En casos donde solo la parte social está afectada, podemos pasar una vida sin saberlo. Descubrir en la vida adulta que tienen Asperger suele ser una “liberación” en algunos casos, una forma de comprender muchos de sus problemas.
Los niños y adolescentes con Asperger -generalmente- suelen tener una buena capacidad de comprensión, un buen nivel verbal y salvo por sus problemas sociales o de literalidad, en poco se diferencian a nivel cognitivo de sus pares sin asperger. Sin embargo sus problemas marcan una gran diferencia, es importante por tanto que sean conscientes de ellas y que puedan trabajar en ellas de forma consciente.
Hay muchas familias que no quieren que sus hijos lo sepan, para no fomentar “la etiqueta”. Bien, antes o después se va a enterar, el hecho de que tenga Síndrome de Asperger no significa que viva en una nube. Es consciente de todo y sabe que va a terapias y talleres sociales y por tanto “algo” pasa. Ocultar lo evidente es absurdo, es mejor mostrar la realidad desde el punto de vista del niño o adolescente. A su vez, si el niño está medicado, también querrá saber por qué toma esa medicación. Y todo debe de tener una explicación lógica y comprensible. Es mucho mejor que controlemos la situación y la información que va a recibir, de forma que sea adecuada. Básicamente usaremos un modelo similar al de un niño con autismo y buenas capacidades, tan solo haremos la adecuación necesaria para nuestro hijo. Seamos siempre positivos y no destaquemos aspectos negativos. El conocer nuestras carencias nos ayuda a trabajar en ellas.

Entendiendo el concepto “Diversidad Funcional” o “Discapacidad”:
No suele ser fácil para un niño comprender bien estos términos. Usar ejemplos de otras personas con diversidad funcional visible, sobre todo físicas para explicarle el concepto, no considero que sea una buena idea, enseñarle el respeto a lo diverso sí lo es. Todos somos diferentes de una forma u otra, nuestros rostros son diferentes, nuestros gustos son diferentes, por tanto, también podemos “pensar de forma diferente” o actuar de forma diferente. Tener que usar una silla de ruedas para desplazarse es algo que le llamará la atención al niño, expliquémoslo de una forma sencilla, sin dar gravedad al tema. Un perro lazarillo es como la silla de ruedas de una persona con paraplejia, pues igualmente, seamos sencillos en nuestra explicación.
Cuando nuestro hijo conozca a niños con Síndrome de Down, no le hablemos de que son un angelitos o un niños especiales, ni ningún tipo de “definición” poética, su hijo posiblemente la comprenderá mal o no la comprenderá. Un niño con Síndrome de Down es un niño más y punto. Y al igual que nuestro hijo, tiene algunas diferencias, que no le hacen ni mejor ni peor. Por tanto, nuestro hijo tampoco es un angelito, ni un niño especial ni nada por el estilo. Ese tipo de definiciones provocan por una parte, mucha ternura y ganas de protección en muchas personas, en otras quizá lo contrario, y por otra parte cierta segregación; nuestro hijo no necesita ni la una ni la otra, nuestro hijo necesita tan solo que lo acepten como es. La diversidad es más fácil entenderla desde un punto de vista aséptico cuando hablamos con personas con un TEA. Por ejemplo, si una persona no puede andar usa una silla de ruedas; si no ve usa un bastón o un perro lazarillos; si tiene problemas de lenguaje usa un comunicador con pictogramas; si tiene problemas de comprensión social usa un asistente que le ayuda.
Es importante el trabajo en talleres sociales y talleres de juego. En estos talleres el niño aprenderá técnicas que le ayuden a superar y mejorar algunas de sus dificultades, esas que hemos abordado previamente, es mejor fomentar el espíritu de superación con un modelo positivo ¡Tú puedes conseguirlo! ¡Has hecho un trabajo fantástico, enhorabuena!

Los hermanos:
Los hermanos juegan -o deberían- un papel fundamental en el desarrollo correcto del niño con un Trastorno del Espectro del Autismo. Normalmente los hermanos de personas con algún tipo de diversidad funcional han de superar muchos retos de forma temprana, estos hacen que tengan una maduración acelerada, una mayor responsabilidad, incluso sensación de aislamiento de sus padres o de vergüenza hacia su hermano, y por ende, un sentimiento de culpa por estas sensaciones negativas. Los hermanos también deben de conocer los numerosos “por qué” de la “diferencia” de su hermano. De esta forma serán mucho más proactivos, comprenderán mejor la situación y se pueden convertir en poderosos aliados. Hay muchos casos de familias donde los hermanos son mucho más hábiles a la hora de gestionar los berrinches de su hermano que los propios padres, o que son unos estupendos terapeutas. Son niños muy equilibrados, serenos y que en suma, cuando lleguen a su edad adulta serán todo un ejemplo de calidad humana. Pero para ello, deberán de tener la información adecuada, siempre desde el punto de vista de su edad. No podemos hablar con un chaval de 11 años sobre prevalencias, comorbilidades, metacognición u otras palabras y conceptos técnicos. Seamos consecuentes y hagamos que nuestros otros hijos sientan que su rol en la familia es importante, y que disponen de la información necesaria, que sientan que se cuenta con ellos.

Franco Corelli sings Nessun Dorma

As you all know I have a passion for Opera, as well as Baroque Classical music, and tonight I would like to share with you the aria Nessum Dorma sang by the great Franco Corelli.

Enjoy it my friends!

On Military Strategy



Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals. Derived from the Greek strategos, strategy when it appeared in use during the 18th century, was seen in its narrow sense as the "art of the general", 'the art of arrangement' of troops. Military strategy deals with the planning and conduct of campaigns, the movement and disposition of forces, and the deception of the enemy.

The father of modern strategic study, Carl von Clausewitz, defined military strategy as "the employment of battles to gain the end of war." B. H. Liddell Hart's definition put less emphasis on battles, defining strategy as "the art of distributing and applying military means to fulfill the ends of policy". Hence, both gave the pre-eminence to political aims over military goals.


Fundamentals:


Military strategy is the planning and execution of the contest between groups of armed adversaries. Strategy, which is a subdiscipline of warfare and of foreign policy, is a principal tool to secure national interests. It is larger in perspective than military tactics, which involves the disposition and maneuver of units on a particular sea or battlefield, but less broad thangrand strategy, which is the overarching strategy of the largest of organizations such as the nation state, confederation, or international alliance. Military strategy involves wielding diplomatic, informational, military, and economic resources against the opponent's resources to gain supremacy or reduce the opponent's will to fight, developed through the precepts ofmilitary science.

NATO's definition of strategy is "presenting the manner in which military power should be developed and applied to achieve national objectives or those of a group of nations. Strategy may be divided into 'Grand Strategy', geopolitical in scope and 'military strategy' that converts the geopolitical policy objectives into militarily achievable goals and campaigns. Field Marshal Viscount Alanbrooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff and co-chairman of the Anglo-US Combined Chiefs of Staff Committee for most of the Second World War, described the art of military strategy as: "to derive from the aim a series of military objectives to be achieved: to assess these objectives as to the military requirements they create, and the pre-conditions which the achievement of each is likely to necessitate: to measure available and potential resources against the requirements and to chart from this process a coherent pattern of priorities and a rational course of action."

Field-Marshal Montgomery summed it up thus "Strategy is the art of distributing and applying military means, such as armed forces and supplies, to fulfil the ends of policy. Tactics means the dispositions for, and control of, military forces and techniques in actual fighting. Put more shortly: strategy is the art of the conduct of war, tactics the art of fighting."


Background


Military strategy in the 19th century was still viewed as one of a trivium of "arts" or "sciences" that govern the conduct of warfare; the others being tactics, the execution of plans and maneuvering of forces in battle, and logistics, the maintenance of an army. The view had prevailed since the Roman times, and the borderline between strategy and tactics at this time was blurred, and sometimes categorization of a decision is a matter of almost personal opinion. Carnot, during the French Revolutionary Wars thought it simply involved concentration of troops.
Strategy and tactics are closely related and exist on the same continuum, modern thinking places the operational level between them. All deal with distance, time and force but strategy is large scale, can endure through years, and is societal while tactics are small scale and involve the disposition of fewer elements enduring hours to weeks. Originally strategy was understood to govern the prelude to a battle while tactics controlled its execution. However, in the world wars of the 20th century, the distinction between maneuver and battle, strategy and tactics, expanded with the capacity of technology and transit. Tactics that were once the province of a company of cavalry would be applied to a panzer army.
It is often said that the art of strategies defines the goals to achieve in a military campaign, while tactics defines the methods to achieve these goals. Strategic goals could be "We want to conquer area X", or "We want to stop country Y's expansion in world trade in commodity Z"; while tactical decisions range from a general statement, e.g. "We're going to do this by a naval invasion of the North of country X", "We're going to blockade the ports of country Y", to a more specific "C Platoon will attack while D platoon provides fire cover".
In its purest form, strategy dealt solely with military issues. In earlier societies, a king or political leader was often the same person as the military leader. If he was not, the distance of communication between the political and the military leader was small. But as the need of a professional army grew, the bounds between the politicians and the military came to be recognized. In many cases, it was decided that there was a need for a separation.
As French statesman Georges Clemenceau said, "War is too important a business to be left to soldiers." This gave rise to the concept of the grand strategy which encompasses the management of the resources of an entire nation in the conduct of warfare. In the environment of the grand strategy, the military component is largely reduced to operational strategy -- the planning and control of large military units such as corps and divisions. As the size and number of the armies grew and the technology to communicate and control improved, the difference between "military strategy" and "grand strategy" shrank. Fundamental to grand strategy is the diplomacy through which a nation might forge alliances or pressure another nation into compliance, thereby achieving victory without resorting to combat. Another element of grand strategy is the management of the post-war peace.
As Clausewitz stated, a successful military strategy may be a means to an end, but it is not an end in itself. There are numerous examples in history where victory on the battlefield has not translated into long term peace, security or tranquility.



Principles


Many military strategists have attempted to encapsulate a successful strategy in a set of principles. Sun Tzu defined 13 principles in his The Art of War while Napoleon listed 115 maxims. American Civil War General Nathan Bedford Forrest had only one: "to git thar furst with the most men" or "to get there first with the most men". The concepts given as essential in theUnited States Army Field Manual of Military Operations (FM-3-0, sections 4-32 to 4-39) are:

Objective (Direct every military operation towards a clearly defined, decisive, and attainable objective)

Offensive (Seize, retain, and exploit the initiative)

Mass (Concentrate combat power at the decisive place and time)

Economy of Force (Allocate minimum essential combat power to secondary efforts)

Maneuver (Place the enemy in a disadvantageous position through the flexible application of combat power)

Unity of Command (For every objective, ensure unity of effort under one responsible commander)

Security (Never permit the enemy to acquire an unexpected advantage)

Surprise (Strike the enemy at a time, at a place, or in a manner for which he is unprepared)

Simplicity (Prepare clear, uncomplicated plans and clear, concise orders to ensure thorough understanding)

Some strategists assert that adhering to the fundamental principles guarantees victory while others claim war is unpredictable and the general must be flexible in formulating a strategy. Field Marshal Count Helmuth von Moltke expressed strategy as a system of "ad hoc expedients" by which a general must take action while under pressure. These underlying principles of strategy have survived relatively unscathed as the technology of warfare has developed.

Strategy (and tactics) must constantly evolve in response to technological advances. A successful strategy from one era tends to remain in favor long after new developments in military weaponry and matériel have rendered it obsolete. World War I, and to a great extent the American Civil War, saw Napoleonic tactics of "offense at all costs" pitted against the defensive power of the trench, machine gun and barbed wire. As a reaction to her World War I experience, France entered World War II with a purely defensive doctrine, epitomized by the "impregnable" Maginot Line, but only to be completely circumvented by the German blitzkrieg.




Development


The principles of military strategy can be found as far back as 500 BC in the works of Sun Tzu and Chanakya. The campaigns ofAlexander the Great, Chandragupta Maurya, Hannibal, Qin Shi Huang, Julius Cæsar, Zhuge Liang, Khalid ibn al-Walid and, in particular, Cyrus II demonstrate strategic planning and movement. Mahan describes in the preface to The Influence of Sea Power upon History how the Romans used their sea power to effectively block the sea lines of communication of Hannibal with Carthage; and so via a maritime strategy achieved Hannibal's removal from Italy, despite never beating him there with their legions.
Early strategies included the strategy of annihilation, exhaustion, attrition warfare, scorched earth action, blockade, guerrillacampaign, deception and feint. Ingenuity and adeptness was limited only by imagination, accord, and technology. Strategists continually exploited ever-advancing technology.

In 1520 Niccolò Machiavelli's Dell'arte della guerra (Art of War) dealt with the relationship between civil and military matters and the formation of the grand strategy. In the Thirty Years' War, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden demonstrated advanced operational strategy that led to victories in Holy Roman Empire area.
It was not until the 18th century that military strategy was subjected to serious study in Europe. In the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), Frederick the Great improvised a "strategy of exhaustion" (see Attrition warfare) to hold off his opponents and conserve his Prussian forces. Assailed from all sides by France, Austria, Russia and Sweden, Frederick exploited his central position which enabled him to move his army along interior lines and concentrate against one opponent at a time. Unable to achieve victory, he was able to stave off defeat until a diplomatic solution was reached. Frederick's "victory" led to great significance being placed on "geometric strategy" which emphasized lines of manoeuvre, awareness of terrain and possession of critical strongpoints.


“Genghis Khan and the Mongols”


As a counterpoint to European developments in the strategic art, the Mongol Emperor Genghis Khan provides a useful example. Genghis' successes, and those of his successors, were based upon manoeuvre and terror. The point of Genghis' strategic assault was nothing less than the psychology of the opposing population. By a steady and meticulous implementation of this strategy, Genghis and his descendants were able to conquer most of Eurasia. The building blocks of Genghis' army and his strategy were his tribal levies of mounted archers, scorched earth-style methods, and (just as important) the vast horse-herds of Mongolia.
Each archer had at least one extra horse; (it was an average five horses per man) thus the entire army could move with incredible rapidity. Moreover since horse milk and horse blood were the staples of the Mongolian diet, Genghis' horse-herds functioned not just as his means of movement but also as his logistical sustainment. All other necessities would be foraged and plundered. Khan's marauders also brought with them mobile shelters, concubines, butchers, and cooks. Through maneuver and continuous assault, Chinese, Persian, Arab and Eastern European armies could be stressed until they broke, and then were annihilated in pursuit.
Compared to the armies of Genghis, all other armies were heavy and comparatively immobile. It was not until well into the 20th century that any army was able to match the rapidity of deployment of Genghis' armies. When confronted with a fortified city, the Mongol imperatives of maneuver and speed required that it be quickly subdued. Here the fear engendered by the awful reputation of the Mongolians helped intimidate and subdue.

So too did primitive biological warfare. A trebuchet or other type of ballista weapon would be used to launch dead animals and corpses into a barricaded city, spreading disease and death among the inhabitants, such as the Black Plague. If a particular town or city displeased the Mongolian Khan, everyone in the city would be killed to set an example for all other cities. This was early psychological warfare.
Note that of the above list of strategic terms, even this elementary summary indicates that the Mongols strategy was directed towards an objective (that schwerpunkt (main focus) being nothing less than the psychology of the opposing population) achieved through the offensive; the offensive was characterized by concentration of forces, manoeuvre, surprise and simplicity.


“Napoleonic strategy”

The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars that followed revolutionized military strategy. The impact of this period was still to be felt in the American Civil War and the early phases of World War I.
With the advent of cheap small arms and the rise of the drafted citizen soldier, armies grew rapidly in size to become massed formations. This necessitated dividing the army first intodivisions and later into corps. Along with divisions came divisional artillery; light-weight, mobile cannon with great range and firepower. The rigid formations of pikemen and musketeersfiring massed volleys gave way to light infantry fighting in skirmish lines.
Napoleon I of France took advantage of these developments to pursue a brutally effective "strategy of annihilation" (see scorched earth) that terrorized the populace and cared little for the mathematical perfection of the geometric strategy. Napoleon invariably sought to achieve decision in battle, with the sole aim of utterly destroying his opponent, usually achieving success through superior manoeuvre. As ruler and general he dealt with the grand strategy as well as the operational strategy, making use of political and economic measures.

While not the originator of the methods he used, Napoleon very effectively combined the relatively superior maneuver and battle stages into one event. Before this, General Officers had considered this approach to battle as separate events. However, Napoleon used the maneuver to battle to dictate how and where the battle would progress. The Battle of Austerlitz was a perfect example of this maneuver. Napoleon withdrew from a strong position to draw his opponent forward and tempt him into a flank attack, weakening his center. This allowed the French army to split the allied army and gain victory.

Napoleon used two primary strategies for the approach to battle. His "Manoeuvre De Derrière" (move onto the rear) was intended to place the French Army across the enemy's lines of communications. This forced the opponent to either march to battle with Napoleon or attempt to find an escape route around the army. By placing his army into the rear, his opponent's supplies and communications would be cut. This had a negative effect on enemy morale. Once joined, the battle would be one in which his opponent could not afford defeat. This also allowed Napoleon to select multiple battle angles into a battle site. Initially, the lack of force concentration helped with foraging for food and sought to confuse the enemy as to his real location and intentions. This strategy, along with the use of forced marches created a morale bonus that played heavily in his favor.

The "indirect" approach into battle also allowed Napoleon to disrupt the linear formations used by the allied armies. As the battle progressed, the enemy committed their reserves to stabilize the situation, Napoleon would suddenly release the flankingformation to attack the enemy. His opponents, being suddenly confronted with a new threat and with little reserves, had no choice but to weaken the area closest to the flanking formation and draw up a battle line at a right angle in an attempt to stop this new threat. Once this had occurred, Napoleon would mass his reserves at the hinge of that right angle and launch a heavy attack to break the lines. The rupture in the enemy lines allowed Napoleon's cavalry to flank both lines and roll them up leaving his opponent no choice but to surrender or flee.

The second strategy used by Napoleon I of France when confronted with two or more enemy armies was the use of the central position. This allowed Napoleon to drive a wedge to separate the enemy armies. He would then use part of his force to mask one army while the larger portion overwhelmed and defeated the second army quickly. He would then march on the second army leaving a portion to pursue the first army and repeat the operations. This was designed to achieve the highest concentration of men into the primary battle while limiting the enemy's ability to reinforce the critical battle. The central position had a weakness in that the full power of the pursuit of the enemy could not be achieved because the second army needed attention.
So overall the preferred method of attack was the flank march to cross the enemy's logistics. Napoleon used the central position strategy during the Battle of Waterloo.

“Waterloo”

Napoleon masked Wellington and massed against the Prussian army, and then after the Battle of Ligny was won, Napoleon attempted to do the same to the Allied/British army located just to the south of Waterloo. His subordinate was unable to mask the defeated Prussian army, who reinforced the Waterloo battle in time to defeat Napoleon and end his domination of Europe.
It can be said that the Prussian Army under Blücher used the "maneuver de derrière" against Napoleon who was suddenly placed in a position of reacting to a new enemy threat.

Napoleon's practical strategic triumphs, repeatedly leading smaller forces to defeat larger ones, inspired a whole new field of study into military strategy. In particular, his opponents were keen to develop a body of knowledge in this area to allow them to counteract a masterful individual with a highly competent group of officers, a General Staff. The two most significant students of his work wereCarl von Clausewitz, a Prussian with a background in philosophy, and Antoine-Henri Jomini, who had been one of Napoleon's staff officers.

One notable exception to Napoleon's strategy of annihilation and a precursor to trench warfare were the Lines of Torres Vedrasduring the Peninsular campaign. French Armies lived off the land and when they were confronted by a line of fortifications which they could not out flank, they were unable to continue the advance and were forced to retreat once they had consumed all the provisions of the region in front of the lines.

The Peninsular campaign was notable for the development of another method of warfare which went largely unnoticed at the time, but would become far more common in the 20th century. That was the aid and encouragement the British gave to the Spanish to harass the French behind their lines which led them to squander most of the assets of their Iberian army in protecting the army's line of communications. This was a very cost effective move for the British, because it cost far less to aid Spanish insurgents than it did to equip and pay regular British army units to engage the same number of French troops.

As the British army could be correspondingly smaller it was able to supply its troops by sea and land without having to live off the land as was the norm at the time. Further, because they did not have to forage they did not antagonise the locals and so did not have to garrison their lines of communications to the same extent as the French did. So the strategy of aiding their Spanish civilian allies in their guerrilla or 'small war' benefited the British in many ways, not all of which were immediately obvious.


“Clausewitz and Jomini”

Clausewitz's On War has become the respected reference for strategy, dealing with political, as well as military, leadership. His most famous assertion being:
"War is not merely a political act, but also a real political instrument, a continuation of policy carried out by other means."

Clausewitz dismissed "geometry" as an insignificant factor in strategy, believing instead in the Napoleonic concept of victory through battle and destruction of the opposing force, at any cost. However, he also recognized that limited warfare could influence policy by wearing down the opposition through a "strategy of attrition".
In contrast to Clausewitz, Antoine-Henri Jomini dealt mainly with operational strategy, planning and intelligence, the conduct of the campaign, and "generalship" rather than "statesmanship". He proposed that victory could be achieved by occupying the enemy's territory rather than destroying his army.

As such, geometric considerations were prominent in his theory of strategy. Jomini's two basic principles of strategy were to concentrate against fractions of the enemy force at a time and to strike at the most decisive objective. Clausewitz and Jomini are required reading for today's military professional officer.


Strategy in the industrial age, 1860s-1900s:

The evolution of military strategy continued in the American Civil War (1861–65). The practice of strategy was advanced by generals such as Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman, all of whom had been influenced by the feats of Napoleon (Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson was said to have carried a book of Napoleon's maxims with him.)

However, the adherence to the Napoleonic principles in the face of technological advances such as the long-range infantry breechloader rifles and minie ball guns generally led to disastrous consequences for both the Union and Confederate forces and populace. The time and space in which war was waged changed as well. Railroads enabled swift movement of large forces but the manoeuvring was constrained to narrow, vulnerable corridors. Steam power and ironclads changed transport and combat at sea. Newly invented telegraph enabled more rapid communication between armies and their headquarters capitals. Combat was still usually waged by opposing divisions with skirmish lines on rural battlefields, violent naval engagements by cannon-armed sailing or steam-powered vessels, and assault on military forces defending a town.

There was still room for triumphs for the strategy of manoeuvre such as Sherman's March to the Sea in 1864, but these depended upon an enemy's unwillingness to entrench. Towards the end of the war, especially in defense of static targets as in the battles of Cold Harbor and Vicksburg, trenches between both sides grew to a World War I scale. Many of the lessons of the American Civil War were forgotten, when in wars like the Austro-Prussian War or the Franco-Prussian War, manoeuvre won the day.

In the period preceding World War I, two of the most influential strategists were the Prussian generals, Helmuth von Moltke and Alfred von Schlieffen. Under Moltke the Prussian army achieved victory in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71), the latter campaign being widely regarded as a classic example of the conception and execution of military strategy.

In addition to exploiting railroads and highways for manoeuvre, Moltke also exploited the telegraph for control of large armies. He recognised the increasing need to delegate control to subordinate commanders and to issue directives rather than specific orders. Moltke is most remembered as a strategist for his belief in the need for flexibility and that no plan, however well prepared, can be guaranteed to survive beyond the first encounter with the enemy.

Field Marshal Schlieffen succeeded Moltke and directed German planning in the lead up to World War I. He advocated the "strategy of annihilation" but was faced by a war on two fronts against numerically superior opposition. The strategy he formulated was the Schlieffen Plan, defending in the east while concentrating for a decisive victory in the west, after which the Germans would go on to the offensive in the east. Influenced by Hannibal's success at the Battle of Cannae, Schlieffen planned for a single great battle of encirclement, thereby annihilating his enemy.

Another German strategist of the period was Hans Delbrück who expanded on Clausewitz's concept of "limited warfare" to produce a theory on the "strategy of exhaustion". His theory defied popular military thinking of the time, which was strongly in favour of victory in battle, yet World War I would soon demonstrate the flaws of a mindless "strategy of annihilation".

At a time when industrialisation was reaping major advances in naval technology, one American strategist, Alfred Thayer Mahan, almost single-handedly brought the field of naval strategyup to date. Influenced by Jomini's principles of strategy, he saw that in the coming wars, where economic strategy could be as important as military strategy, control of the sea granted the power to control the trade and resources needed to wage war. Mahan pushed the concept of the "big navy" and an expansionist view where defence was achieved by controlling the sea approaches rather than fortifying the coast. His theories contributed to the naval arms race between 1898 and 1914.


Strategy in World War I:

At the start of World War I strategy was dominated by the offensive thinking that had been in vogue since 1870, despite the more recent experiences of the Second Boer War (1899–1902) and Russo-Japanese War (1904–05), where the machine gun demonstrated its defensive capabilities. By the end of 1914, the Western Front was a stalemate and all ability to maneuver strategically was lost. The combatants resorted to a "strategy of attrition".

The German battle at Verdun, the British on the Somme and at Passchendaele were among the first wide-scale battles intended to wear down the enemy. Attrition was time-consuming so the duration of World War I battles often stretched to weeks and months. The problem with attrition was that the use of fortified defenses in depth generally required a ratio of ten attackers to one defender, or a level of artillery support which was simply not feasible until late 1917, for any reasonable chance of victory. The ability of the defender to move troops using interior lines prevented the possibility of fully exploiting any breakthrough with the level of technology then attainable.

Perhaps the most controversial aspect of strategy in World War I was the difference among the British between the "Western" viewpoint (held by Field Marshal Haig) and the "Eastern"; the former being that all effort should be directed against the German Army, the latter that more useful work could be done by attacking Germany's allies. The term "Knocking away the props" was used, perhaps as an unfortunate consequence of the fact that all of Germany's allies lay south of (i.e. 'beneath') her on the map. Apologists and defenders of the Western viewpoint make the valid point that Germany's allies were more than once rescued from disaster or rendered capable of holding their own or making substantial gains by the provision of German troops, arms or military advisers, whereas those allies did not at any time provide a similar function for Germany. That is, it was Germany which was the prop, and her allies (particularly Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary) did not suffer significant reverses until Germany's ability to come to their aid was grossly impaired.

On other fronts, there was still room for the use of strategy of maneuver. The Germans executed a perfect battle of annihilation against the Russians at the Battle of Tannenberg (1914). In 1915 Britain and France launched the well-intentioned but poorly conceived and ultimately fruitless Dardanelles Campaign, combining naval power and an amphibious landing, in an effort to aid their Russian ally and knock the Ottoman Empire out of the war. The Palestine campaign was dominated by cavalry, which flourished in the local terrain, and the British achieved two breakthrough victories at Gaza (1917) and Megiddo (1918). Colonel T. E. Lawrence and other British officers led Arab irregulars on a guerrilla campaign against the Ottomans, using strategy and tactics developed during the Boer Wars.

World War I saw armies on a scale never before experienced. The British, who had always relied on a strong navy and a small regular army, were forced to undertake a rapid expansion of the army. This outpaced the rate of training of generals and staff officers able to handle such a mammoth force, and overwhelmed the ability of British industry to equip it with the necessary weapons and adequate high-quality munitions until late in the war. Technological advances also had a huge influence on strategy: aerial reconnaissance, artillery techniques,poison gas, the automobile and tank (though the latter was, even at the end of the war, still in its infancy), telephone and radio telegraphy.

More so than in previous wars, military strategy in World War I was directed by the grand strategy of a coalition of nations; the Entente on one side and the Central Powers on the other. Society and economy were mobilized for total war. Attacks on the enemy's economy included Britain's use of a naval blockade and Germany employing submarine warfare againstmerchant shipping.

Unity of command became a question when the various nation states began coordinating assaults and defenses. Under the pressure of horrendously destructive German attacks beginning on March 21, 1918, the Entente eventually settled under Field Marshal Ferdinand Foch. The Germans generally led the Central Powers, though German authority diminished and lines of command became confused at the end of the war.

World War I strategy was dominated by the "Spirit of the Offensive" where generals resorted almost to mysticism in terms of a soldier's personal "attitude" in order to break the stalemate, this led to nothing but bloody slaughter as troops in close ranks charged machineguns. Each side developed an alternate thesis. The British under Winston Churchilldeveloped tank warfare with which they eventually won the war. The Germans developed a "doctrine of autonomy" the forerunner of both blitzkrieg and modern infantry tactics using groups of Stormtroopers who would advance in small mutually covering groups from cover to cover with "autonomy" to exploit any weakness they discovered in enemy defenses.

Almost all theblitzkrieg commanders of World War II, particularly Erwin Rommel were stormtroopers in World War I. After the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Germany launched and almost succeeded in a final offensive, however the new tactics of autonomy revealed a weakness in terms of overall coordination and direction. The March offensive, intended to drive a wedge between the French and British armies, turn on the latter and destroy it, lost direction and became driven by its territorial gains, its original purpose neglected.

World War I ended when the ability of the German army to fight became so diminished that Germany asked for peace conditions. The German military, exhausted by the efforts of the March offensives and dispirited by their failure, was first seriously defeated during the battle of Amiens (8–11 August 1918) and the German homefront entered general revolt over a lack of food and destruction of the economy. Victory for the Entente was almost assured by that point, and the fact of Germany's military impotence was driven home in the following hundred days. In this time, the Entente reversed the gains the Germans had made in the first part of the year, and the British Army (spearheaded by the Canadians and Australians) finally broke the Hindenburg defensive system.

Though his methods are questioned, Britain's Field Marshal Haig was ultimately proved correct in his grand strategic vision: "We cannot hope to win until we have defeated the German Army." By the end of the war, the best German troops were dead and the remainder were under continuous pressure on all parts of the Western Front, a consequence in part of an almost endless supply of fresh American reinforcements (which the Germans were unable to match) and in part of industry at last supplying the weakened Entente armies with the firepower to replace the men they lacked (whilst Germany wanted for all sorts of materials thanks to the naval blockade). Interior lines thus became meaningless as Germany had nothing more to offer its allies. The props eventually fell, but only because they were themselves no longer supported.

The role of the tank in World War I strategy is often poorly understood. Its supporters saw it as the weapon of victory, and many observers since have accused the high commands (especially the British) of shortsightedness in this matter, particularly in view of what tanks have achieved since. Nevertheless, the World War I tank's limitations, imposed by the limits of contemporary engineering technology, have to be borne in mind.

They were slow (men could run, and frequently walk, faster); vulnerable (to artillery) due to their size, clumsiness and inability to carry armour against anything but rifle and machine gun ammunition; extremely uncomfortable (conditions inside them often incapacitating crews with engine fumes and heat, and driving some mad with noise); and often despicably unreliable (frequently failing to make it to their targets due to engine or track failures). This was the factor behind the seemingly mindless retention of large bodies of cavalry, which even in 1918, with armies incompletely mechanised, were still the only armed force capable of moving significantly faster than an infantryman on foot. It was not until the relevant technology (in engineering and communications) matured between the wars that the tank and the airplane could be forged into the co-ordinated force needed to truly restore manoeuvre to warfare.


Strategy development between World Wars:

In the years following World War I, two of the technologies that had been introduced during that conflict, the aircraft and the tank, became the subject of strategic study.
The leading theorist of air power was Italian general Giulio Douhet who believed that future wars would be won or lost in the air. The air force would carry the offensive and the role of the ground forces would be defensive only. Douhet's doctrine of strategic bombing meant striking at the enemy's heartland—his cities, industry and communications. Air power would thereby reduce his willingness and capacity to fight. At this time the idea of the aircraft carrier and its capabilities also started to change thinking in those countries with large fleets, but no-where as much as in Japan. The UK and USA seem to have seen the carrier as a defensive weapon and their designs mirrored this, the Japanese Imperial navy seem to have developed a new offensive strategy based around the power projection these made possible.

British general J. F. C. Fuller, architect of the first great tank battle at Cambrai, and his contemporary, B. H. Liddell Hart, were amongst the most prominent advocates of mechanization and motorization of the army in Britain. In Germany, study groups were set up by Hans von Seeckt, commander of the Reichwehr Truppenamt, for 57 areas of strategy and tactics to learn from World War I and to adapt strategy to avoid the stalemate and then defeat they had suffered. All seem to have seen the strategic shock value of mobility and the new possibilities made possible by motorised forces. Both saw that the armoured fighting vehicle demonstrated firepower, mobility and protection. The Germans seem to have seen more clearly the need to make all branches of the Army as mobile as possible to maximise the results of this strategy. It would negate the static defences of the trench and machine gun and restore the strategic principles of manoeuvre and offense. Nevertheless, it was the British Army which was the only one truly mechanised at the beginning of the Second World War, the Germans still relying on horse traction for a portion of their artillery.

The innovative German Major (later General) Heinz Guderian developed the motorised part of this strategy as the head of one of the Truppenamt groups and may have incorporated Fuller's and Liddell Hart's ideas to amplify the groundbreaking Blitzkrieg effect that was seen used by Germany against Poland in 1939 and later against France in 1940. France, still committed to stationary World War I strategies, was completely surprised and summarily overwhelmed by Germany's mobile combined arms doctrine and Guderian's Panzer Corps.

Technological change had an enormous effect on strategy, but little effect on leadership. The use of telegraph and later radio, along with improved transport, enabled the rapid movement of large numbers of men. One of Germany's key enablers in mobile warfare was the use of radios, where these were put into every tank. However, the number of men that one officer could effectively control had, if anything, declined. The increases in the size of the armies led to an increase in the number of officers. Although the officer ranks in the US Army did swell, in the German army the ratio of officers to total men remained steady.


Strategy in World War II:

“German strategy”

The main political goals of Adolf Hitler were the fight against bolshevism and communism, the re-establishment of Germany as a European superpower ("Third Reich"), the persecution and annihilation of Jewish people, and the accumulation of Lebensraum ("Living space") for the Germanic race. Another primary goal of Hitler's foreign policy was the complete anulment of the Versailles treaty, which he had already secretely undermined for several years, especially parts restricting the rearmament of Germany. Before the second World War, Hitler used the broad disdain for the Treaty of Versailles among the German population and the grim economic situation due to the Great Depression to gain support for his leadership. His strategy was to build up military strength and bolster German nationalism, while trying to prevent an two-front-war by setting up non-aggression-pacts with Britain
(Appeasement) and Russia (Stalin-Hitler Pact), and by annexing neighbouring countries at first only gradually and without using full military force (the Austrian Anschluss (annexation), and the occupation in two stages of Czechoslovakia).

This political strategy proved successful at first, and the occupations together with the Remilitarization of the Rhineland stifled opposition and gave Hitler great prestige.
A turning point had been reached with the German invasion of Poland.

Both France and Britain had hesitated to get involved in a war so soon after World War I, and while still being affected by the worldwide economic crisis, but after observing the fate of Czechoslovakia, they signed a treaty promising aid to Poland if it was attacked by Germany. Consequently, Britain and France declared war when Germany invaded Poland under a false pretense.

German military strategies at the beginning of World War II were largely successful The Wehrmacht at this early stage of the war had tactical superiority over the Allies, and flexibility and manouvere characterised their offensives. "The Wehrmacht used a holistic approach to command and control." The 1906 German Regulation stated "combat demands thinking independent leaders and troops capable of independent action." General of Panzer Troops Herman Balck explained that "we lived off a century long tradition which is that in a critical situation the subordinate with an understanding of the overall situation can act or react responsibly. We always placed great emphasis on the independent action of subordinated."

The German application of rapid battlefield manouvere with concentrated armoured divisions supported by motorised infantry regiments acting under air superiority developed those approaches which had been deemed unorthodox by many generals. Falschirmjaeger, special forces (brandenburgers), as well as the SS regiments completed the first line ground force shock troops. The movements made by the elements of Army Group A had to approach Belgium and France through rough terrain (e.g. the Ardennes),the relatively passive and old-fashioned opponents could notmatch the effective combination of tank assaults and air strikes ("Blitzkrieg"). The strategies of Generals Erwin Rommel, Heinz Guderian and the German Chief strategist, Erich von Manstein were especially significant in the German victories early in the war, and in slowing down the German defeat in the years after.

Hitler insisted on designing or condoning strategies himself, and often demanded significant changes of strategies, often also at the operational level. The initial success of the German unconventional and aggressive strategies, both military and political (e.g. Czechoslovakia, Poland, France), were thus often attributed to Hitler himself. Combined with the mythical attributes ascribed to him (Führerprinzip), this led to wide support for his leadership, both among the German population and the military. In reality, many of his strategic decisions and the overreliance on his personal will were considered largely detrimental to the German war effort. Examples are Hitler's initial orthodox strategy for the invasion of France, which were changed after the original plans were discovered by allied intelligence; his orders to stop the German troops at Dunkirk, which allowed the main bulk of the surviving French and British armies to escape to England; and his decisions leading to and during the Battle of Stalingrad.

In the later years of the war, Hitler's strategy became more and more based on paranoia, intuition, flawed logic, and unrealistic assumptions. However, the strength of his terrible hold on domestic policy remained so strong, that his authority was not questioned, any challenge was quickly suppressed. Later, he ordered continued bombing of Britain and the uneconomical prosecution of the Eastern front efforts despite the strategic costs and failures. In the final stages of the war, his actions and orders could no longer be said to be an attempt to conduct a coherent strategy.

“British strategy”

Confronted with the rise of Hitler's power on the continent, and fearing a change in the balance of power, the British gradually turned to a fierce opposition and finally a war declaration over the invasion of Poland. Britain wasn't prepared for war, especially on land, and the initial years were a series of defeats, as they got thrown off the European continent everywhere (France,Norway, Greece). After air superiority over the Channel was secured in the battle of Britain, and the anti-submarine weapons were perfected to win the battle of the Atlantic, Britain itself was not threatened anymore. Strategic plans could turn to the offensive, especially with the USA leaning more and more to a war with Germany.
After the United States entered the war, Europe (as opposed to the Pacific) was chosen as the prime theater of operations by the formulation of the "Germany first" principle at theArcadia Conference. However, their land armies wouldn't be capable of invading the mainland of Europe for years, even as Joseph Stalin pleaded for this to alleviate pressure on the Russian front. Instead, the Allies decided to take an indirect approach by invading Europe from the South. After cleansing North Africa of Axis forces (the invasion of French North-Africaand El Alamein), Sicily and southern Italy were invaded, effectively knocking Italy out of the war. Given that the terrain circumstances in this area were unviable to turn this route into the main thrust on Germany itself, the main purpose of these operations weren't mainly territorial, but focused on tying up as many German forces in southern Europe as possible, thereby thinning the garrison forces in France, where the main Allied force was still planned to invade.
In the air war, superiority was gained fairly early. After that, the Allies launched a strategic bombing campaign against Germany. After initial emphasis on economic targets (factories, infrastructure, etc.), the Allies turned more and more towards terror bombing of German cities.

“Soviet strategy”

Early Soviet strategy intended to postpone entry into the war for as long as possible. While the purging of the Red Army officer corps had been conducted to strengthen the party's hold of the army and thus the state, the consequences led to severe disappointments when the army was shown as unfit to conduct any kind of serious war in Poland, the Finnish winter war and the establishment of Soviet rule in the Baltic republics. With the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, Joseph Stalin believed he had accomplished a position of superiority over the warring sides.
The Barbarossa campaign of 1941 came as a complete surprise to the Soviets. Nevertheless, they reacted swiftly, particularly in the civilian aspect. As the army was being defeated and gave ground at an amazing speed, a gigantic operation was staged to move the economic capacity from the Western areas that were about to be overrun, to Eastern regions that were out of reach for the Germans, like the Ural. Entire factories, including their labour force, were simply moved out of reach from the Germans, and what couldn't be taken was destroyed ("Scorched earth"). Thus, even though huge territories were captured by the Germans, the production potential of the Soviet economy was not correspondingly harmed, and the factories shifted to mass production of military equipment quickly, soon outproducing the German economy.
After achieving numerical superiority, the Soviets were still qualitatively inferior. To compensate for this, they emphasized gaining an even larger quantitative edge. The later offensive Soviet campaigns all saw a massive employment of manpower, often resulting in extremely bloody battles. It wasn't unusual that Soviet "victories" inflicted far larger casualties on themselves than on the Germans. However, the total national manpower pool was so much larger than the German one, that this still led to success.


“Japanese strategy”

Japanese World War II strategy was driven by two factors: the desire to expand their territories on the mainland of Asia (China and Manchuria), and the need to secure the supply of raw resources that they didn't have themselves, particularly oil. Since their quest after the former (conquest of Chinese provinces) endangered the latter (an oil boycott by the USA and its Allies), the Japanese government saw no other option than to conquer the oil sources in South-East Asia. Since these were controlled by American allies, war with the USA was also inevitable; and given that fact, they decided it would be best to deal a big blow to them first. This was executed in the Pearl Harbor strike, crippling the American battle fleet.
Japan hoped that it would take America so long to rebuild, that by the time they were back in force in the Pacific, they would consider the new balance of power a "fait accompli", and barter for peace. They had underestimated the psychological effect of the Pearl Harbor strike; the USA wouldn't negotiate with an enemy that had struck them in this way. Even though South-East Asia was quickly conquered (Philippines, Indochina, Malaysia(formerly known as Malaya), Dutch East Indies, the early sea battles in the Pacific were tied. After the vital aircraft carrier force was destroyed in the Battle of Midway, the Japanese had to revert to a stiff defense that they kept up for three years


“American strategy”

Since the American economic force was much larger than the Japanese, even considering their effort in the European theatre, the numerical inferior US forces remaining in the area after Pearl Harbor weren't afraid to battle the Japanese; they knew they could replace battle losses faster than the Japanese. In several aircraft carrier battles, the initiative was taken from the Japanese, and after the Battle of Midway, the Japanese navy was rendered helpless, effectively giving the Americans the possibility to sail wherever they wanted.
As the Japanese offensive died down in the second half of 1942, the Americans saw themselves confronted with an endless amount of fortified garrisons on small islands in the ocean. They decided on a strategy of "island hopping", leaving the strongest garrisons alone, just cutting their supply, and securing bases of operation on the lightly defended isles instead. They kept up this strategy until they were in the Japanese waters themselves, allowing the aerial bombing of the Japanese mainland.


“Australian strategy”

Australia's historical ties with Britain meant that with the commencement of World War II her armies were sent overseas to contribute to battles in Europe. Fear from the north was so understated that at the outbreak of open warfare with Japan, Australia itself was extremely vulnerable to invasion (possible invasion plans were considered by the Japanese high command, though there was strong opposition). Australia's policy became based entirely on domestic defense following the attacks on Pearl Harbor and British assets in the South Pacific. Defying strong British opposition, Australian Prime Minister John Curtin recalled most troops from the European conflict for the defense of the nation.
Australia's defensive doctrine saw a fierce campaign fought along the Kokoda track in New Guinea. This campaign sought to further stretch Japanese supply lines, preventing the invasion of the Australian mainland until the arrival of fresh American troops and the return of seasoned Australian soldiers from Europe. This can be seen as a variant of the war of attrition strategy, where the defender - out of necessity - had to hold the aggressor at a semi-static defensive line, rather than falling back in the face of superior numbers. This method is in stark contrast to the Russian scorched earth policy against Napoleon in 1812, where the defenders yielded home territory in favour of avoiding open battle. In both cases the lack of supplies was successful in blunting the assaults, following exhaustive defensive efforts.


“Cold War strategy”

The strategy of the Cold War was that of containment and it was a generation dominated by the threat of total world annihilation through the use of nuclear weapons. Deterrence was a part of containment via retributive intimidation from the risk of mutually assured destruction. As a consequence it was also a war in which attacks were not exchanged between the two main rivals, the United States and the Soviet Union. Instead, the war was fought through proxies. Instead of mainly being confined to Europe or the Pacific, the entire world was the battlefield, with countries rather than armies acting as main players. The only constant rule was that troops of the Soviet Union and the United States could not overtly fight with each other. Military strategy involved bipolar powers with global actors who could strike an opponent with nationally debilitating destruction in a matter of minutes from land, air, and sea.

The difference between tactics, strategy and grand strategy began to melt during the Cold War as command and communication technologies improved to a greater extent, in first world armed forces. The third world armed forces controlled by the two superpowers found that grand strategy, strategy and tactics, if anything, moved further apart as the command of the armies fell under the control of super power leaders.

American cold warriors like Dean Acheson and George C. Marshall quickly recognized that the key to victory was the economic defeat of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union had adopted an aggressive posture of Communist expansionism following the end of World War II, with the United States and its strong navy quickly finding that it had to aggressively defend much of the world from the Soviet Union and the spread of communism.

Strategies during the Cold War also dealt with nuclear attack and retaliation. The United States maintained a policy of limited first strike throughout the Cold War. In the event of a Soviet attack on the Western Front, resulting in a breakthrough, the United States would use tactical nuclear weapons to stop the attack.
So, if the Warsaw Pact attacked using conventional weapons, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) would use tactical nukes. The Soviet Union would respond with an all out nuclear attack, resulting in a similar attack from the United States, with all the consequences the exchange would entail.

By contrast, Soviet strategy in the Cold War was dominated by the desire to prevent, at all costs, the recurrence of an invasion of Russian soil, and by the Marxist-Leninist teaching that one way or the other, Socialism ultimately had to prevail, which was taken to mean even in a nuclear war. The Soviet Union nominally adopted a policy of no first use, which in fact was a posture of launch on warning. Other than that, the USSR adapted to some degree to the prevailing changes in the NATO strategic policies that are divided by periods as:

Strategy of massive retaliation (1950s) (Russian: стратегия массированного возмездия)

Strategy of flexible reaction (1960s) (Russian: стратегия гибкого реагирования)

Strategies of realistic threat and containment (1970s) (Russian: стратегия реалистического устрашения или сдерживания)

Strategy of direct confrontation (1980s) (Russian: стратегия прямого противоборства) one of the elements of which became the new highly effective high-precision targeting weapons.

Strategic Defense Initiative (also known as "Star Wars") during its 1980s development (Russian: стратегическая оборонная инициатива – СОИ) which became a core part of the strategic doctrine based on Defense containment.

Fortunately for all sides, the all-out nuclear World War III between NATO and the Warsaw Pact did not take place. The United States recently (April 2010) acknowledged a new approach to its nuclear policy which describes the weapons' purpose as "primarily" or "fundamentally" to deter or respond to a nuclear attack.

Strategy in the post Cold War is characterized by a number of potent powers in a multipolar array and has come to be defined by the hyperpower status of the United States, which is increasingly relying on advanced technology to minimize casualties and improve efficiency. The technological quantum leaps brought by the Digital Revolution are essential for this strategy.

The gap in strategy today (from a Western viewpoint) is in what the Americans call "asymmetric warfare": the battle against guerrilla forces by conventional national armed forces. The classical strategic triumvirate of politics/military/populace is very weak against protracted warfare of paramilitary forces such as the Provisional Irish Republican Army, Hezbollah, ETA, PKK, and Al-Qaeda. The ability of conventional forces to deliver utility (effect) from their hugely powerful forces is largely nullified by the difficulties of distinguishing and separating combatants from the civilian populace in whose company they hide. The use of the military by the politicians to police areas seen as bases for these guerrillas leads to them becoming targets themselves which eventually undermines the support of the populace from whom they come and whose values they represent.

The primary effect of insurgent elements upon conventional force strategy is realized in the twofold exploitation of the inherent violence of military operations. Conventional armies face political attrition for each action they take. Insurgent forces can cause harm and create chaos, whereby the conventional army suffers a loss of confidence and esteem; or they can drive the conventional elements into an attack which further exacerbates the civilian condition.

The militaries of today are largely set up to fight the 'last war' and hence have huge armoured and conventionally configured infantry formations backed up by air-forces and navies designed to support or prepare for these forces. Many are today deployed against guerrilla-style opponents where their strengths cannot be used to effect. The mass formations of Industrial War are often seen as much less effective than the unconventional forces that these organisations also possess. The new opponents operate at a local level whereas Industrial armed forces work at a much higher 'theatre' level. The nervous system of these new opponents is largely political rather than military hierarchical and adapted to the local supporting populace who hide them. The centre provides the political idea and driving logic perhaps with overall direction and some funding. Local groups decide their own plans, raise much of their own funds and may be more or less aligned to the centre's aims. Defeat of forces when revealed does not disable this type of organisation, many modern attack strategies will tend to increase the power of the group they are intended to weaken. A new more political strategy is perhaps more appropriate here with military backing. Such a strategy has been illustrated in the war between the IRA an adoption and codification is unclear.


“Netwar”

An extra issue concerning asymmetric warfare concerns the nature of some paramilitary organizations which are involved in guerrilla military actions, but which are not traditional organizations with a central authority defining their military and political strategies. These organizations (such as Al-Qaeda) may exist as a sparse network of groups lacking central coordination, making them extremely difficult to confront following standard strategic approaches. This new field of strategic thinking is tackled by what is now defined as Netwar.


Bibliography

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Chaliand, Gérard, The Art of War in World History: From Antiquity to the Nuclear Age, University of California Press, 1994

Gartner, Scott Sigmund, Strategic Assessment in War, Yale University Press, 1999

Heuser, Beatrice, The Evolution of Strategy: Thinking War from Antiquity to the Present (Cambridge University Press, 2010), ISBN 978-0-521-19968-1

Matloff, Maurice, (ed.), American Military History: 1775-1902, volume 1, Combined Books, 1996

Wilden, Anthony, Man and Woman, War and Peace: The Strategist's Companion, Routledge, 1987

Carpenter, Stanley D. M., Military Leadership in the British Civil Wars, 1642-1651: The Genius of This Age, Routledge, 2005

D'Aguilar, G.C., Napoleon's Military Maxims, free ebook, Napoleon's Military Maxims

Heuser, Beatrice: "Victory in a Nuclear War? A Comparison of NATO and WTO War Aims and Strategies", Contemporary European History Vol. 7 Part 3 (November 1998), pp. 311–328

Holt, Thaddeus, The Deceivers: Allied Military Deception in the Second World War, Simon and Schuster, June, 2004, hardcover, 1184 pages, ISBN 0-7432-5042-7

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*The US Army War College Strategic Studies Institute publishes several dozen papers and books yearly focusing on current and future military strategy and policy, national security, and global and regional strategic issues. Most publications are relevant to the International strategic community, both academically and militarily. All are freely available to the public in PDF format. The organization was founded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower after World War II*
Further reading